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Adhika Masa

SOURCE : Sri Chaturvedi Vedavyasachar & others

What is Adhika Masa?

Adhika Masa is the thirteenth month in a Calender year followed by Lunar Calender,i.e., Chandramana reethya.

As per Chandramaana reethya, we have 354 days in a calendar year. But as per Sourmana reethya, (Solar Calender) we have 365 days. So, there is a difference of 11 days between Sourmana reethya and Chandramana reethya. So, these extra days difference of 11 days will be added, once in 33 months (32 months, 16 days , and 4 ghalige to be precise) , so that there is extra 29 or 30 days in that particular year. This concept of adding one extra month after every 33 months is known as Adhika Masa.

In states like Karnataka, Andhrapradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, etc, the adhika maasa begins on Shudda padya and ends on Amavasya day (New moon day). In North India, Adhika Masa begins on Vaishaka Bahula Padya, and ends on Hunnime (Full moon day). Whereas in states like Assam, Bengal, Kerala, Tamilnadu, there is no adhika maasa for them, as they are following solar calendar.

Adhika Maasa is applicable for Chandramana followers only.

The lunar calendar is completely synchronizes with the solar calendar in a period of 60 years.

Mathematically, a Chandramana Varsha (Lunar calendar = 29.5305 X 12 = 354.366 days) has 354 days, while a Soura Varsha (Solar calendar = 365.2587 days) has 365 days, the difference being 11 days per year.

For one year (12 months)      – 11 days
For second year (12 months) – 11 days
For 8 months ( 8 months)      – 7 ½ days
For 16 days & 4 galige           – ½ days
———————————————————————–
Total 33 months                 – 30 days
———————————————————————–

“ dvaatrimshadbhi: gatai: maasai: dinai: ShOdashabhistatha|
GaTikaanaaM chatuShkENa patatyadhikamaasaka: “ ||

ದ್ವಾತ್ರಿಂಶದ್ಭಿ: ಗತೈ: ಮಾಸೈ: ದಿನೈ: ಷೋದಶಭಿಸ್ತಥಾ|
ಘಟಿಕಾನಾಂ ಚತುಷ್ಕೇಣ ಪತತ್ಯಧಿಕಮಾಸಕ: ||

द्वात्रिंशद्भि: गतै: मासै: दिनै: षोदशभिस्तथा।
घटिकानां चतुष्केण पतत्यधिकमासक: ॥

Sankramana during Adhika Masa – During Adhika Masa, there will not be any sankramana. That is why it is said “asankraantamaasOdhimaasa:”.

Note : Normally Adhikamasa will be happening once in 33 months. Sometimes, it may happen in 29 months, 30 months, 31 months, and 35 months also due to the variations in Graha sanchara. That is why it is said in Mahabharatha that the Adhikamasa will be occurring twice in 5 years.

paMchamE paMchamE varshE dvaumaasaavadhimaasakau |
tEshaaM kaalaatirEkENa grahaaNaamatichaarata: |

Purushottama maasa shrestatva – Sri Purushottama is the masa niyamaka for this adhika maasa. That is why it is called as “Purushottama Maasa”.

Other names for Adhika Masa –

“Mala Maasa”, – as Srihari will remove all our sins during this maasa. As this month will be without sankranti, there is no importance of Shubha kaarya like Marriage, Upanayana, Gruhapravesha, etc.

“malimlucha”, – When there is no sun in a particular month it is termed as “Malimucha”. There are dwadashadityaru, viz., AruNa, Surya, bhaanu, tapana, indra, ravi, gabhasti, Aryama, hiraNyarEtasa, divaakara, mitra, viShNu will be born in each twelve months. There will be no sun during the thirteenth month. Therefore the works of the Sun will be done by the suryamandala itself.

maasEShu dvaadashaadityaa: tapaMtE hi yathaakramaM |
napuMsakEdhikE maasi maMDalaM tapasE rave ||

मासेषु द्वादशादित्या: तपंते हि यथाक्रमं ।
नपुंसकेधिके मासि मंडलं तपसे रवॆ ॥

ಮಾಸೇಷು ದ್ವಾದಶಾದಿತ್ಯಾ: ತಪಂತೇ ಹಿ ಯಥಾಕ್ರಮಂ |
ನಪುಂಸಕೇಧಿಕೇ ಮಾಸಿ ಮಂಡಲಂ ತಪಸೇ ರವೆ ||

“purushottama maasa” – as Purushottama is the maasa niyamaka
Once Chaturmuka brahmadevaru kept the Saadhane done through Vedokta acharane in one side of a scale and sadhane done done during purushottama maasa. Then the scale weighed more in purushottama sadhane side itself, which clearly explains the importance of Adhika maasa

Duties during Adhika Maasa –

  1. Maasa snaana – Throughout the month, we have to get up early during arunodayakala itself and do the snaana in rivers, and thirthas or atleast in wells. (Even when we are doing the snaana in a Pipeline water supplied by watersupply board, we have to do the chintana of Ganga sankalpa and do it).
  2. Nakta Bhojana – We have to do the fasting till night and do the bhojana only in the night.
  3. Ayachita Vrata – We must not ask anybody anything. We have be yadruchchaalaaba santrupta.
  4. Dharana parana – One day upavaasa (DharaNa), next day (PaaraNa) – with this 15 days upavasa and 15 days bhojana.
  5. Tambula Daana – During Adhikamasa, if we give tamboola daana to brahmana suvasiniyaru, our dourbhagya will be removed and we will get soubhagya.
  6. Deepa daana – During this month we have to light “Akanda deepa” in the devara mane. We must ensure that the deepa never goes off throughout the day-night.
  7. Apoopa daana – During this month, one has to give apoopadaana of 33 apoopa to brahmana daily. However, we can give more than 33 also, but not less than 33. If it is not possible to give apoopa daana on all the days, one can give it on any particular day. It must be accompanied by same number of Tamboola (Villedele), and dakshine. If we are doing on any single day – Shukla dwaadashi, pourNami, Krishna Dwadashi, amavasye, Krishna paksha astami, navami and chaturdashi is preferable.
  8. Apoopa must be made up of Rice, jiggery, ghee. By giving the apoopa daana, we will get the punya equal to pruthvi daana.
  9. Phala daana – Actually apoopa daana is the Best. But we can give daana of Fruits, like mangoes, bananas, etc. Each fruits must have be alongwith 33 tambola villedele, 33 dakshine, etc.
  10. Kamyakarma shiddha – During Adhka Maasa, Marriage, Upanayana, Gruhapravesha, choula, sanyasa sweekara, annaprashana, – must not be done as these are kaamyakarma. However Homa – Havana done with the intention of pleasing srihari, bhagavatpoojartham it can be done. If we have already started any kaamyakarma prior to adhika maasa, it can be continued, but new karmas not be started.
  11. Shraddhas – Samvatsarika shraddha if it is falling during a month of Adhika maasa, it has to be done in Nija maasa. Eg. Shraaddha falling during Vaishaka Maasa must be done in regular vaishaka maasa and not in Adhika Vaishaka Maasa.
  12. Shraaddhaas – monthly shraadhaas during Adhika Maasa – If one has died in a year and his monthly shraaddha to be done in Adhikamasa apart from regular monthly shraddha.
  13. Chaturmasya – If during Chaturmasya, Adhika maasa comes, then we have to observe Chaturmasya + Adhikamaasa. If during Shaka vratha adhikamasa comes, Shaka Vratha must be done for two months.
  14. Mahalaya Maasa – If during Bhadrapada Maasa adhika Maasa, comes, then Mahalaya Paksha to be done in both Adhika and nija Bhadrapada maasa.

33 devate in apoopadaana:

Sl No Devate Antaryami roopa
Astavasugalu
1. DrONa VishNu
2. Dhruva Jishnu
3. Dosha MahavishNu
4. Arka Hari
5. Agni Krishna
6. Dyou Adhokshaja
7. PraaNa Keshava
8. Vibhavasu Madhava
Ekadasha Rudraru
9. Bheema Raama
10. Raivata Achyuta
11. Oja Purushottama
12. Ajaikapaat Govinda
13. Mahaan Vamana
14. Bahuroopa ShrIsha
15. Bhava ShrIkanTa
16. Vaamadeva Vishvasaakashi
17. Ugra NaarayaNa
18. VruShaakapi Madhuripu
19. Ahirbudhni Aniruddha
Dwadashadityaru
20. Vivaswaan Trivikrama
21. Aryamaa VaasudEva
22. Poosha JagadyOni
23. tvaShTru AnaMta
24. Savitru Sheshasaayi
25. Bhaga SankarshaNa
26. Dhaatru Pradyumna
27. Parjanya Daityaari
28. VaruNa VishvatOmukha
29. Mitra Janardhana
30. Shakra Dharaavaasa
31. Urukrama Daamodara
32. Prajapathi Agardhana
33. Vashatkara ShrIpati

Adhikamaasa katha:

Once Lakshmidevi asked Srihari as to how to perform the Adhika Maasa pooja and what are the daanaas to be during Adhikamasa.

Then Srihari told her that he himself is the God for the Adhika maasa with the name Purushottama. What ever punya kaarya lika snaana, japa, homaa will bring akshaya phala. He also told that those who does not do any punya karya during Adhika Maasa will be getting daaridrya, putrashoka, etc

Those who could not do for the whole month can do it atleast on Krishna paksha Astami, navami, chaturdashi, Dwadashi, pournami, chaturdashi, etc.

Earlier there lived a brahmana by name Kaushika who was a jitendriya. He had a son by name maitreya who was addicted to drinking and was a kamaandha. One day Maitreya went to forest. He killed a brahmana in Sourashtra and snatched all the money with the Brahmin. Because he killed that brahmana, the whole City itself was burnt. As he got brahma hatya dosha, Maitreya was taken by Yamadootharu and was thrown in Krumeekunda. He was in the Hell for more than 10000 years. After a long period, Kaushika, the father of Maitreya came to know about the same. Kaushika searched all the shruthi – shaastraas and found a remedy for brahmahatya parihara.

He did the Vratha named Adhikamasa Vratha and gave 33 apoopadaana and his son was saved from the Hell. As such, Adhikamasa vratha, if done with proper anusandhana can remove brahma hatya dosha also.

ADHIKA MASA APOOPA DAANA SANKALPA

अपूप दान संकल्प –

आचमन, प्राणानायम्य – ………………………………..वासर, …..योग, …..करण, …….शुभतिथौ, संकीर्त्य अष्टवसु, एकादश रुद्र, द्वादशादित्य, प्रजापति, वौषट्काराख्य त्रयस्त्रिंशत् देवतांतर्गत श्री भारतीरमण मुख्य प्राणांतर्गत श्री विष्वादि त्रयस्त्रिंशन्नामधारि मलमास देवताभिन्न श्री पुरुषोत्तम प्रेरणया, श्री पुरुषोत्तम प्रीत्यर्थं पृथ्वीदान समफलं त्रयस्त्रिंशत् अपूपदानमहं करिष्ये ।

काम्य संकल्प – मम निखिल पापशमन पूर्वक पुत्रपौत्रादि धनदान्यादि क्षेमसमृद्धि लोकद्वय सुखहेतुभूत भूदान फलावाप्तै अपूपच्चिद्र समसंज्य वर्ष सहस्रावधि स्वलोक निवाससिद्द्यर्थं मलमासप्रयुक्तं अपूपदानमहं करिष्ये ।

तदंग पुरुशोत्तम पूजां करिष्ये. अस्मिन् ब्राह्मणे पुरुषोत्तमं आवाहयिष्ये मंत्रेण मंत्राक्शतॆयिंद ब्राह्मणन मेलॆ हाकबेकु.

अपूपदान भगवद्रूप चिंतनॆ –
विष्णुं जिष्णुं महाविष्णुं हरिं कृष्णं अधोक्षजं ।
केशवं माधवं रामं अच्युतं पुरुषोत्तमं ।
गोविंदं वामनं श्रीशं श्रीकंठं वि?साक्षिणं ।
नारायणं मधुरिपुं अनिरुद्धं त्रिविक्रमं ।
वासुदेवं जगद्योनिं अनंतं शेषशायिनं ।
संकर्षणं च प्रद्युम्नं दैत्यारिं वि?तोमुखं ।
जनार्धनं धरावासं दामोदरमघार्दनं ।
श्रीपतिं च त्रयस्त्रिंशदुद्दिश्य प्रतिनामभि: ।
मंत्रैरेतेश्च यो दद्यात् त्रयस्त्रिंशदपूपकं
प्राप्नोति विफुलां लक्ष्मीपुत्र पौत्रादि संततिं ।
इदम् सोपपस्करं त्रयस्त्रिंशदपूपं सदक्षिणाकं, सतांबूलं, श्री भारतीरमण मुख्य प्राणांतर्गत श्री पुरुषोत्तमस्य प्रीतिं कामयमान: तुभ्यमहं संप्रददे न मम, न मम – इति नमस्कुर्यात् ।
अनेन त्रयस्त्रिंशदपूपदानेन श्री पुरुषोत्तम प्रीयतां प्रीतो वरदो भवतु ।

श्री कृष्णार्पणमस्तु ।

ಅಪೂಪ ದಾನ ಸಂಕಲ್ಪ –

ಆಚಮನ, ಪ್ರಾಣಾನಾಯಮ್ಯ – ………………………………..ವಾಸರ, …..ಯೋಗ, …..ಕರಣ, …….ಶುಭತಿಥೌ, ಸಂಕೀರ್ತ್ಯ ಅಷ್ಟವಸು, ಏಕಾದಶ ರುದ್ರ, ದ್ವಾದಶಾದಿತ್ಯ, ಪ್ರಜಾಪತಿ, ವೌಷಟ್ಕಾರಾಖ್ಯ ತ್ರಯಸ್ತ್ರಿಂಶತ್ ದೇವತಾಂತರ್ಗತ ಶ್ರೀ ಭಾರತೀರಮಣ ಮುಖ್ಯ ಪ್ರಾಣಾಂತರ್ಗತ ಶ್ರೀ ವಿಷ್ವಾದಿ ತ್ರಯಸ್ತ್ರಿಂಶನ್ನಾಮಧಾರಿ ಮಲಮಾಸ ದೇವತಾಭಿನ್ನ ಶ್ರೀ ಪುರುಷೋತ್ತಮ ಪ್ರೇರಣಯಾ, ಶ್ರೀ ಪುರುಷೋತ್ತಮ ಪ್ರೀತ್ಯರ್ಥಂ ಪೃಥ್ವೀದಾನ ಸಮಫಲಂ ತ್ರಯಸ್ತ್ರಿಂಶತ್ ಅಪೂಪದಾನಮಹಂ ಕರಿಷ್ಯೇ |

ಕಾಮ್ಯ ಸಂಕಲ್ಪ – ಮಮ ನಿಖಿಲ ಪಾಪಶಮನ ಪೂರ್ವಕ ಪುತ್ರಪೌತ್ರಾದಿ ಧನದಾನ್ಯಾದಿ ಕ್ಷೇಮಸಮೃದ್ಧಿ ಲೋಕದ್ವಯ ಸುಖಹೇತುಭೂತ ಭೂದಾನ ಫಲಾವಾಪ್ತೈ ಅಪೂಪಚ್ಚಿದ್ರ ಸಮಸಂಜ್ಯ ವರ್ಷ ಸಹಸ್ರಾವಧಿ ಸ್ವಲೋಕ ನಿವಾಸಸಿದ್ದ್ಯರ್ಥಂ ಮಲಮಾಸಪ್ರಯುಕ್ತಂ ಅಪೂಪದಾನಮಹಂ ಕರಿಷ್ಯೇ |

ತದಂಗ ಪುರುಶೋತ್ತಮ ಪೂಜಾಂ ಕರಿಷ್ಯೇ. ಅಸ್ಮಿನ್ ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮಣೇ ಪುರುಷೋತ್ತಮಂ ಆವಾಹಯಿಷ್ಯೇ ಮಂತ್ರೇಣ ಮಂತ್ರಾಕ್ಶತೆಯಿಂದ ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮಣನ ಮೇಲೆ ಹಾಕಬೇಕು.

ಅಪೂಪದಾನ ಭಗವದ್ರೂಪ ಚಿಂತನೆ –

ವಿಷ್ಣುಂ ಜಿಷ್ಣುಂ ಮಹಾವಿಷ್ಣುಂ ಹರಿಂ ಕೃಷ್ಣಂ ಅಧೋಕ್ಷಜಂ |
ಕೇಶವಂ ಮಾಧವಂ ರಾಮಂ ಅಚ್ಯುತಂ ಪುರುಷೋತ್ತಮಂ |
ಗೋವಿಂದಂ ವಾಮನಂ ಶ್ರೀಶಂ ಶ್ರೀಕಂಠಂ ವಿಶ್ವಸಾಕ್ಷಿಣಂ |
ನಾರಾಯಣಂ ಮಧುರಿಪುಂ ಅನಿರುದ್ಧಂ ತ್ರಿವಿಕ್ರಮಂ |
ವಾಸುದೇವಂ ಜಗದ್ಯೋನಿಂ ಅನಂತಂ ಶೇಷಶಾಯಿನಂ |
ಸಂಕರ್ಷಣಂ ಚ ಪ್ರದ್ಯುಮ್ನಂ ದೈತ್ಯಾರಿಂ ವಿಶ್ವತೋಮುಖಂ |
ಜನಾರ್ಧನಂ ಧರಾವಾಸಂ ದಾಮೋದರಮಘಾರ್ದನಂ |
ಶ್ರೀಪತಿಂ ಚ ತ್ರಯಸ್ತ್ರಿಂಶದುದ್ದಿಶ್ಯ ಪ್ರತಿನಾಮಭಿ: |
ಮಂತ್ರೈರೇತೇಶ್ಚ ಯೋ ದದ್ಯಾತ್ ತ್ರಯಸ್ತ್ರಿಂಶದಪೂಪಕಂ
ಪ್ರಾಪ್ನೋತಿ ವಿಫುಲಾಂ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಮೀಪುತ್ರ ಪೌತ್ರಾದಿ ಸಂತತಿಂ |
ಇದಮ್ ಸೋಪಪಸ್ಕರಂ ತ್ರಯಸ್ತ್ರಿಂಶದಪೂಪಂ ಸದಕ್ಷಿಣಾಕಂ, ಸತಾಂಬೂಲಂ, ಶ್ರೀ ಭಾರತೀರಮಣ ಮುಖ್ಯ ಪ್ರಾಣಾಂತರ್ಗತ ಶ್ರೀ ಪುರುಷೋತ್ತಮಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರೀತಿಂ ಕಾಮಯಮಾನ: ತುಭ್ಯಮಹಂ ಸಂಪ್ರದದೇ ನ ಮಮ, ನ ಮಮ – ಇತಿ ನಮಸ್ಕುರ್ಯಾತ್ |
ಅನೇನ ತ್ರಯಸ್ತ್ರಿಂಶದಪೂಪದಾನೇನ ಶ್ರೀ ಪುರುಷೋತ್ತಮ ಪ್ರೀಯತಾಂ ಪ್ರೀತೋ ವರದೋ ಭವತು |

ಶ್ರೀ ಕೃಷ್ಣಾರ್ಪಣಮಸ್ತು |

3 Responses to Adhika Masa

  1. Shashi Rekha

    excellent, good info.

    Thanks
    Shashi

  2. Prasad

    Amazing and rare information.

  3. NAGAPRAKASH

    Request your kindself to give lyrics for 33 songs to be sung during adhikamasa

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