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Chaathurmasa vrata

- by Ganesh Mogeraya

Hari sarvottamma,  Vaayu jiivottamma
Shri Gurubhyo namaha, Shri Krishna parabrahmane namaha

Contents:

  • About chaturmasyavratas.
  • Events in Chaturmasyavrata
    • 1st Month Shaka vrata
    • 2nd month Dhadhi vrata
    • 3rd month Ksheera vrata
    • 4Th month Dwidala & bahubeeja vrata.
  • How to follow chaturmasyavratas
  • What puranas says about the Greatness of chaturmasyavratas
    • Varaha purana says
    • Skanda purana says
    • AdityapurANaM says Non observance of chathurmasa vrata as
  • Vrata sankalpa Mantra
  • Shaka vrata Sankalpa Mantra
  • Daddhi Vrata Sankalpa Mantra
  • Ksheera Vrata Sankalpa Mantra
  • ChathurmAsa vrata samarpana Mantra

The chaturmasyavrata like Ekadashi & Krishnashtami (Jayanthi) vrata is also a compulsory vrata for all Brahmins.  The period of 4 months from Ashada Shukla Ekadashi (Ekadashi during the bright half of Ashada-shayanaikadashi) to Karthika shukla Dwadashi (dwadashi during the bright half of Kartika-Utthana-Prabodha Dwadashi) is known as Chathurmasa.  During this period, Mahavishnu remains in yogic sleep (yoganidra).  During this ChaturmAsya period, it is the duty of sanyasis to remain in one place.  The fact that masa (month) also means paksha fortnight (mAso vai paxaH – Shruthi) has been taken into consideration & due course of time, it has become the tradition in all Madhwa muttas for the sanyasis to observe the vrata for only 4 pakshas (i.e 2 months).

During these 4 months period, it is the prime duty of all – not only sanyasis but people of all ashramas, people of all the varnas & both men & women to give up the following:

Shaka (vegetables) & all dishes prepared out of this shaka during the first month/paksha. NO VEGETABLES, no fruits, mustard, red chilles, tumeric, tamarind, methi, coriander, curry leaves, ginger, green chilles, lemon, coconut etc…. . No channa dhal or flour or oil.

During panchamrutha abhisheka:

Only milk, homemade curds, ghee, sugar,  riped Mangoes should be used.  NO HONEY.

Items which can be consumed:

Toor dhal (togari bele), moong dhal (hesaru bele), Urad dhal, Karimenasu (black pepper), jeera, raw full moong dhal, godhi, rava, maida, yellu (sesame), oil,  ghee, sugarcandy, bella, milk, curds, butter, riped or raw mangoes.
NO DHADHI OR CURDS & all dishes prepared out of this dadhi during the second month/paksha.

NO KSHEERA OR MILK & all dishes prepared out of milk during third month/paksha.
Dwidala & bahubeeja (dicotyledons & many seeded fruits vegetables & grains) & all dishes prepared out of these during the 4 th month/paksha.
NO VEGETABLES & DHALS.  No vegetables otherwise mentioned below, no red chilles or chille powder no tamarind, no coriander leaves etc…
WHICH CAN BE CONSUMED FOR DWIDALA VRATA:

Akki (Rice), Godhi (Wheat), Jeerigre (Jeera), Menasu (black pepper), Ellu (sesame seeds), Bella (jagari), Hasi kobbari, Karibevu (Curry leaves), Cooking banana (baLEkAi),  sAmegadde, Spinach, Sweet Potato (I am not sure), Goose Berry,cooking banana, maida, rava, curry  leaves, tumeric, sesame oil, ghee, milk, curds, sugarcandy, cardomom, sugar, mangoes.

What Dharma Shsthra & Puranas says on ChathurmAsya Vrata?

Dharma Shastras proclaim that the non observances of this chathurmAsya spell great ruins for man.
The following four forms of the Lord- Sridhara, Hrishikesha, Padmanabha, Damodara. are the presiding forms of the Lord for the 4 months of Chathurmasa respectively.

There are special mantras to be recited at the start & at the completion of these vratas.  These have to be recited without fail at the appropriate time.

During this period, those who wish may give up consuming ghee, salt, betal leaves & several other such items.  This bestows special merit.
The chathurmAsya vrata is very essential for getting rid of several diseases & for enjoying robust health.  There is no evidence to say that the observance of this vrata leads to ill health; it is only a wrong notion. All the shastras proclaim that this vrata which curtails giving up eating tasty dishes as a form of worship to the Lord is the royal road to acquiring right knowledge & earning the four purushArthas in life.

Varaha purAnaM says about the greatness of ChathurmAsa:

asti priyatamaH kAlashchAturmAsyAbhido mama |
snAnaM vrataM japo homastatrAnaMtaguNaM smR^itaM ||
maseShvanyeShu yatkiMchith kriyate mama toShaNaM |
tasmAtkoTiguNaM puNyaM mAghe makarage ravau ||
tato.api koTiguNitaM vaiShAkhe mAsi labhyate |
tato.apyanaMtaguNitaM chAturmAsye na saMshayaH ||

The period of ChathurmAsya is very dear to Sri Hari. Acts like snana, japa, homa done during this period give immeasurable merit.  The merit that accrues to acts done during the month of Magha when the sun is in Makara rasi is a million times more than the merit that comes to acts done during other times; more than this is the merit that accrues to acts done during the month of Vaishaka.  But the merit that accrues to acts done during chathurmasa period is infinitely more than all those; let there be no doubt regarding this.

Varaha purana further says about ChathurmAsa & its speciality:

AshADe dashamiM suklAmArabhya syAttu kArtikI |
paurNamAsI tAvadidaM chAturmAsyavratAdikaM ||
AdyaH syAt.h shrAvaNo mAso nabhasyo.atha dvitIyakaH |
tR^itIyachchAshvino mAsashchaturthaH kArtikaH smR^itaH ||
chAturmAsye.atha puNyasya vR^iddhiH syA~ncha dine dine |
na kArtikasamAvR^iddiH puNyasyoktA manIShibhiH ||

The time between Ashada shukla dasami & Karthika shukla purnima is the chathurmasa period.  The four months are Shravana, Bhadrapada, Ashvija, Kartika.  The greatness of chathurmaasa increases day by day.  There is no other month as holy as the month of Karthika.

Skanda purana says Chathumasya vrata is compulsory for all.

nityaM kAryaM cha sarveShAM etadvratachatuShTayaM |
nArIbhiShcha narairvApi cha chathurAshramavartibhiH ||
brAhmaNaH  xatriyo vaishyaH sthriyaH shUdro vratI tathA |
gR^ihI vanasthaH kuTicho bahUdaH paramahaMsakaH ||
narakAnna nivartaMte tyaktvA vratachatuShTayaM ||

This vrata is compulsory for all men & women belonging to all the four ashramas – brahmachari,  gruhasta,  vanaprastha & sanyasashrama,  for people belonging to all varnas – brahmana, kshatriya, vaishya & shudra & all types of Sanyasis like kuteechaka , bahooda & paramahamsa – each & every person has to observe this vrata.  Those who do not observe this vrata can never escape hell.

Skanda purana further says:

idaM vrataM mahApuNyaM sarvapApaharaM shubhaM |
sarvAparAdhashamanaM sarvopadravanAshanaM ||
sarvairavashyaM kartavyaM chaturAshramavAsibhiH ||
This vrata bestows great merit; it destroys all sin; it is auspicious; it is capable of wiping out all our offences; it is capable of removing all our ills.  This vrata has to be observed by people belonging to all four ashramas.

AdityapurANaM says Non observance of chathurmasa vrata leads to great sin:

avratena nayedyastu chAturmAsyamanuttamaM|
sa pApi narakaM yAti yAvadAbhUtasaMplavaM ||
One who does not observe the chathurmAsya vrata is considered a great sinner & he will have to suffer in hell till thetime of otal dissolution (pralayakala).

The presiding forms of the Lord for Chathurmaasya:

VarahapuraNa says The presiding forms of Lord for Chathurmasya:

shrIdharascha hR^ishikeshaH padmanAbhastR^itIyakaH |
dAmodaraH kArtikasya chAthumasye tu devatAH ||
Sridhara, Hrishikesha, Padmanabha, Damodhara are the presiding forms of the Lord for the four months respectively.

The time prescribe for observing ChAthurmAsya: (Skanda puraNa)

AShADhasya site pakShe ekAdasyAM samArabhet.h |
kArtikasya site pakShe paurNamAsyAM samApayet.h ||
upavAsasvarUpANi vratAnyanyAni saMti vai |
tAni sarvANi vipreMdra prabodhinyAM samApayet.h ||
dvAdashyAM kArayetteShAM homaM brAhmaNapUjanaM
itarANi cha sarvANi paurNamAsyAM samApayet.h

How to Start or Begin ChathurmAsya Vrata?

The ChathurmAsya vrata should be undertaken from Ashada shukla ekadashi. It should be completed on Karthika shukla poornima.  Only vratas entailing fasts should be completed on Uttana Dwadashi; the corresponding homas & brahmana pujas for these should be completed on this day only; other vratas should be completed on Karthika shuka poornima.

Begin ChathurmAsya vrata as Skanda puraNa Says.

paMchagavyaM prAshayitvAshuddhiM kR^itvA tanordR^iDhaM |
pUjayitvA yathAnyAyaM devadevaM janArdanaM ||
vratAnAM vaxyamANAnAM saMkalpaM vidhiva~ncharet.h |
naimittikAnAM kAmyAnAM nityAnAM cha tathaiva cha ||

On Ashada Shukla Dasami (after finishing the morning bath & deva puja) one has to partake panchagavya & purify the body.  After this, he has to make the sankalpa for the vratas that he is going to observe.

prathame mAsiM kartavyaM nityaM shAkavrataM shubhaM |
dvitIye mAse kartavyaM dadhivratamanuttamaM ||
payovratAM tR^itiye tu chathurthe tu nishAmaya |
dvidalaM bahubIjaM cha varjayechChuddhimichChatA ||
nityAnyetAni vipremMdra ! vratAnyAhurmanIshhiNaH ||

In the first month Shaka vrat; in the second month Dhadhi vrata; in the third month Ksheera vrata; & in the fourth month Dwidala & bahubeeja vrata.

These four vrata is compulsory.

The meaning of Shaka & other vratas:

During the month of Sravana shaka (shaka vrata); during the month of Bhadrapada curds (During the dadhi vrata buttermilk is allowed though it is made from curds) & all preparations made from curds (dhadhi vrata); during the month of Ashvija milk & all dishes prepared using milk (Ksheera vrata) & during the month of kArthika, Dwidala (dicotyledons) & Bahubeeja (many seeded) have to be given up.

What is Shaka: (Adhithya puraNa)

mUlapatrakarIrAgraphalakAMDAdhirUDhakAH |
tvak.h puShpaM kavachaM cheti shAkaM dashAvidhaM smR^itaM ||

The term Shaka signifies the following ten items- root, leaf, shoot, tip, fruit, stem, sprout, stalk, flower, skin.  (it means that these ten items are prohibited during the shaka vrata).

The four are exempted:  (Adhithya puraNe)

atasI tulasI chaiva dhAtrI chUtaphalaM tathA |
grAhyANyetAni chatvAri viShNunottaM yataH purA ||
nAnyat.h kiMchit.h samashrIyAt.h bhuktvA chAMdrAyaNaM charet.h ||

Except Agasthya, tulasi, gooseberry, mango, all other shaka items are prohibited.  By anychance, if they are eaten, one has to undertake chandrayana vrata as expiation (of these only dried gooseberry & mango are used).
Fresh ginger is not allowed.  But dry ginger, pepper can be used.  Some people also use coconuts & dates.

The characteristics of Dwidala-Bahubeeja vrata (4th month): (Skanda puraNa)

bIjameva samutbhUtaM dvidalaM chAMkuraM vinA |
dR^ishyate yatra sasyeShu dvidalaM sadbhiruchyate ||
shilayA bhidyamAne tu dvidalaM yatra dR^ishyate |
dvidalaM taddhi vig~neyaM tanme nigadataH shR^uNu ||
mAShaM cha mudgakaM chaiva chaNakaM cha masUrakaM |
kulitthaM chaiva tiShpAvamADhakaM rAjamAShakaM ||
rAjamudgaM tiMtriNI cha tathA vai nakhapaMchakaM |
nUtanAnyatha jIrNAni sarvANyetAni varjayet.h ||
nAle phale cha dr^ishyaMte bahubIjAni nArada |
bahubIjaM tadityAhuH patrakIrAdikaM tathA ||

Dicotyledonous plants & seeds which break into two equal parts are known as dwidala.  Black gram, green gram, bengal gram, masoor, horsegram, red gram, tamarind etc… are considered as dvidala.  These cannot be used at all. Even greens which have several seeds are considered as bahubeeja.  Such dwidala & bahubeeja items are forbidden during the month of karthika.

ChathurmAsya is a compulsory duty: (SkandapuraNe)

chAturmAsye avratI yastu tasya puNyaM nirarthakaM |
sarvatIrthAni dAnAni puNyAnyAyata nAni cha ||
avratena gataM yeShAM chaturmAsyaM sadA nR^iNAM |
dharmasteShAM vR^ithA sadbhistatvaj~naiH parikIrtitaH ||
saMprApya mAnuShaM janma chAthurmAsyaparA~NbhukhaH |
tasya pApashatAnyAyurdehasthAni na saMshayaH ||

The person who does not observe chathurmAsya vrata stands to lose the merit that accrues while visiting sacred rivers, the merit of giving dhaana & the merit of visiting holy places.  Thus he stands to lose the merit of all good acts.  All sins reside in the body of the person who does not observe the Chathurmasya vrata when one is blesed with the human life.  This is certain.


Tapas & Dhaana are special duties during Chathurmasya: (Skanda puraNa)

parvakAle Shu sarveShu dAnaM deyaM tapaH sadA |
chAturmAsye visheSheNa datanaMtaM prajAyate ||

Tapas & dhana are important duties during any vrata;  more so during the chAthurmAsya period & merit of such tapas & dhana becomes unlimited.

Giving up desired things is highly meritorious: (Skanda puraNa)

iShTavastuprado viShNurlokashcheShTaruchiH sadA |
tasmAt.h sarvaprayatrena chAturmAsye tyajejcha tat.h ||

Lord Vishnu is the giver of all desired things; & people always desire getting the good things of life.  So, during the chathurmaasya period, one should necessarily give up pleasant things.  It means that by the Lord’s grace, we will be blessed with even more of the good things of life & our life will be pleasant & auspicious.

ChathurmAsya vrata Sankalpa Mantras:

supte tvayi jagannAtha jagatsuptaM bhavedidaM |
vibuddhe cha vibuddhyeta prasanno me bhavAchyuta ||
chaturo vArShikAnmAsAn.h deva deva jagatpate |
nirvighnaM siddhimAyAtu prasAdAttava keshava ||
gR^ihIte.asmin.h vrate deva paMchatvaM yadi me bhavet.h |
tadA bhavet.h susaMpUrNaM prasAdAtte janArdana ||

Shaka vrata Sankalpa (Ashada Shukla dwadashi)

shAkavratAM mayA deva gR^ihItaM puratastava |
nirvighnaM siddhimAyAtu prasAdAtte ramApate ||

Shaka Vrata Samarpane Mantra:

upAyanamidaM deva vratasaMpUrtihetave |
shAkaM tu dvijavaryAya sahiraNyaM dadAmyahaM ||

Daddhi Vrata Sankalpa (Shravana sukla Dwadashi)

dadhi bhAdrapate mAsi varjayiShye sadA hare|
imaM kariShye niyamaM nirvighnaM kuru keshava ||

Ksheera Vrata Sankalpa (Bhadrapada shukla dwadashi)

xIravratamidaM deva gR^ihItaM puratastava |
nirvighnaM siddhimAyAtu prasAdAtte ramApate ||


Dwidala vrata Sankalpa (Ashvija shukla dwadashi)

kArthike dvidalaM dhAnyaM varjayiShye sadA hare |
imaM kariShye niyamaM nirvighnaM kuru keshava ||


ChathurmAsa vrata samarpana mantra:

idaM vrataM mayA deva kR^itaM prItyai tava prabho |
nyUnaM saMpUrNatAM  yAtu tvatprasAdAjjanArdana ||

Reference From Sadachara Vinodha  By Vyasanakare Prabhanjanacharya

bhAratIramaNamukhyaprANAntargata shrii kR^iShNArpanamasthu

4 Responses to Chaathurmasa vrata

  1. Holy Days of this year | shivallibrahmins.com

    [...] Taptamudradharanam, Chaturmasarambha [...]

  2. S. RAGUNATH

    In this Article, most of the references are from ‘Skanda Purana’ for observing Chathur Masya Vratha. But, in the Website of one of the reputed Madhwa Math it has been quoted that ‘Skandha Purana is one of “TAMASA PURANAS” which are predominant with misleading statements and are intended to mislead the ineligible from the truth. Then, how the quotings from “Skanda Purana” can be taken as reference for doing the good thing. I wonder which one can be true? & I request that this doubt may kindly be clarified.

  3. samson aseervatham

    The website is facinating and informative for my study and research on” food and culture”.I am amazed at the wisdom of our seers and saints. All their prescriptions are for better living in every possible ways.If we follow them sincerely there will be peace and prosperity in this world.Healthy nation is a wealthy nation. They have given prime importance to health as physical and mental health are closely related.It satisfy the maxim ‘sound mind in a sound body’.I salute our ancestors for sharing a rich legacy for the posterity.The humble way to honour them is to follow them with faithfully.

  4. Balachandra

    Dear Sri Raghunath

    Eventhough a purana is said to be tamasa purana, everything in it is not tamasa. Further vedavyasa devaru did not write wrong things. Tamasa purana means, that reading it, tamasa souls get deluded; satvika souls grasp the “hidden” intent or actual meaning.

    It is like buddha’s upadesha. The same prashAnata vidya was grasped by deities in the right spirit, but asuras interpreted it as shunya vAda.

    Every purana has three styles used in it darshana bhasha, guhya bhasha and samadhi bhasaha. If any part is in accordance with the vedas, then it has to be taken directly or interpreted in accordance with the vedas, else rejected.

    And, the references are not only in skanda purana, other satvika puranas too mention the vrata. Even vratas like ekadashi might be mentioned in some tamas puranas. That does not mean we need to reject ekadashi vrata

    Answer courtesy: Sri Dilip Ratnakar

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