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Bhagavadgeeta Chapter 2 – sAnkhya yOga

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.1

Sunday, August 29th, 2010 - 0 Comment

संजय उवाच :-
तं तथा कृपया आविष्टं अश्रु-पूर्ण-आकुल-ईक्षणम्
विषीदंतं इदं वाक्यं उवाच मधुसूदनः ॥ २.१ ॥

ಸಂಜಯ ಉವಾಚ :-
ತಂ ತಥಾ ಕೃಪಯಾ ಆವಿಷ್ಟಂ ಅಶ್ರು-ಪೂರ್ಣ-ಆಕುಲ-ಈಕ್ಷಣಮ್
ವಿಷೀದಂತಂ ಇದಂ ವಾಕ್ಯಂ ಉವಾಚ ಮಧುಸೂದನಃ || ೨.೧ ||

saMjaya uvAcha :-
taM tathA kRupayA AviShTaM ashru-pUrNa-Akula-eekShaNam
viShIdaMtaM idaM vAkyaM uvAcha madhusUdanaH || 2.1 ||

Sanjaya said: Then Lord Madhusudana spoke these words to the despondent Arjuna, whose saddened eyes were brimming with tears, being plagued by sympathy.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.2

Sunday, August 29th, 2010 - 0 Comment

श्री भगवान् उवाच :-
कुतः त्वा कश्मलं इदं विषमे समुपस्थितम्
अनार्यजुष्टं अस्वर्ग्यं अकीर्तिकरं अर्जुन ॥ २.२ ॥

ಶ್ರೀ ಭಗವಾನ್ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಕುತಃ ತ್ವಾ ಕಶ್ಮಲಂ ಇದಂ ವಿಷಮೆ ಸಮುಪಸ್ಥಿತಮ್
ಅನಾರ್ಯಜುಷ್ಟಂ ಅಸ್ವರ್ಗ್ಯಂ ಅಕೀರ್ತಿಕರಂ ಅರ್ಜುನ || ೨.೨ ||

shree bhagavAn uvAcha :-
kutaH tvA kashmalaM idaM viShame samupasthitam
anAryajuShTaM aswargyaM akeertikaraM arjuna || 2.2 ||

Lord Krishna said: O Arjuna, from where has this misapprehension of yours appeared in this moment of crisis? This is neither befitting for honorable men, nor conductive for the attainment of Heaven, and it will only bring you disrepute.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.3

Sunday, August 29th, 2010 - 0 Comment

क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः पार्थ न एतत् त्वयि उपपद्यते
क्षुद्रं हृदय दौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वा उत्तिष्ठ परंतप ॥ २.३ ॥

ಕ್ಲೈಬ್ಯಂ ಮಾ ಸ್ಮ ಗಮಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ನ ಏತತ್ ತ್ವಯಿ ಉಪಪದ್ಯತೆ
ಕ್ಷುದ್ರಂ ಹೃದಯ ದೌರ್ಬಲ್ಯಂ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಉತ್ತಿಷ್ಠ ಪರಂತಪ || ೨.೩ ||

klaibyaM mA sma gamaH pArtha na Etat tvayi upapadyate
kShudraM hRudaya daurbalyaM tyaktvA uttiShTha paraMtapa || 2.3 ||

O Partha (Arjuna), do not yield to the depression; this is not worthy of you. O slayer of the enemies, shake off this faint-heartedness and rise up.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.4

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

अर्जुन उवाच :-
कथं भीष्मं अहं संख्यॆ द्रॊणं च मधुसूदन
इषुभिः प्रतियॊत्स्यामि पूजार्हौ अरिसूदन ॥ २.४ ॥

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಕಥಂ ಭೀಷ್ಮಂ ಅಹಂ ಸಂಖ್ಯೇ ದ್ರೋಣಂ ಚ ಮಧುಸೂದನ
ಇಷುಭಿಃ ಪ್ರತಿಯೋತ್ಸ್ಯಾಮಿ ಪೂಜಾರ್ಹೌ ಅರಿಸೂದನ || ೨.೪ ||

arjuna uvAcha :-
kathaM bheeShmaM ahaM saMkhyE drONaM cha madhusUdana
iShubhiH pratiyOtsyAmi poojArhau arisUdana || 2.4 ||

Arjuna said :
O Madhusudana, how can I attack the respected Bheeshma and Drona with arrows in the battle, O slayer of the enemies?

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.5

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

गुरून् अहत्वा हि महानुभावान् श्रॆयः भॊक्तुं भैक्ष्यं अपि इह लॊकॆ
हत्वा अर्थ कामान् तु गुरून् इहैव भुंजीय भॊगान् रुधिर प्रदिग्धान् ॥ २.५ ॥

ಗುರೂನ್ ಅಹತ್ವಾ ಹಿ ಮಹಾನುಭಾವಾನ್ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಭೋಕ್ತುಂ ಭೈಕ್ಷ್ಯಂ ಅಪಿ ಇಹ ಲೋಕೇ
ಹತ್ವಾ ಅರ್ಥ ಕಾಮಾನ್ ತು ಗುರೂನ್ ಇಹೈವ ಭುಂಜೀಯ ಭೋಗಾನ್ ರುಧಿರ ಪ್ರದಿಗ್ಧಾನ್ || ೨.೫ ||

gurUn ahatvA hi mahAnubhAvAn shrEyaH bhOktuM bhaikShyaM api iha lOkE
hatvA artha kAmAn tu gurUn ihaiva bhuMjeeya bhOgAn rudhira pradigdhAn || 2.5 ||

It is better to live in this world by begging than to slay our glorious and venerable elders. Otherwise by slaying our elders, the wealth and pleasurable things that we are bound to enjoy will be tainted with their blood.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.6

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

न च एतद् विद्मः कतरन् नः गरीयः यद्वा जयॆम यदि वा नः जयॆयुः
यान् एव हत्वा न जिजीविषामः तॆ अवस्थिताः प्रमुखॆ धार्तराष्ट्राः ॥ २.६ ॥

ನ ಚ ಏತದ್ ವಿದ್ಮಃ ಕತರನ್ ನಃ ಗರೀಯಃ ಯದ್ವಾ ಜಯೇಮ ಯದಿ ವಾ ನಃ ಜಯೇಯುಃ
ಯಾನ್ ಏವ ಹತ್ವಾ ನ ಜಿಜೀವಿಷಾಮಃ ತೇ ಅವಸ್ಥಿತಾಃ ಪ್ರಮುಖೇ ಧಾರ್ತರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಾಃ || ೨.೬ ||

na cha Etad vidmaH kataran naH gareeyaH yadvA jayEma yadi vA naH jayEyuH
yAn Eva hatvA na jijeeviShAmaH tE avasthitAH pramukhE dhArtarAShTrAH || 2.6 ||

We do not know which is more probable, whether we conquer them or they conquer us. Those sons of Dhritarashtra stand before us, whom having slain, we might not wish to live.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.7

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

कार्पण्य दॊष-उपहत स्वभावः पृच्छामि त्वां धर्म सम्मूढ चॆताः
यत् श्रॆयः स्यात् निश्चितं ब्रूहि तत् मॆ शिष्यः तॆ अहं शाधि मां त्वां प्रपन्नम् ॥ २.७ ॥

ಕಾರ್ಪಣ್ಯ ದೋಷ-ಉಪಹತ ಸ್ವಭಾವಃ ಪೃಚ್ಛಾಮಿ ತ್ವಾಂ ಧರ್ಮ ಸಮ್ಮೂಢ ಚೇತಾಃ
ಯತ್ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಸ್ಯಾತ್ ನಿಶ್ಚಿತಂ ಬ್ರೂಹಿ ತತ್ ಮೇ ಶಿಷ್ಯಃ ತೇ ಅಹಂ ಶಾಧಿ ಮಾಂ ತ್ವಾಂ ಪ್ರಪನ್ನಮ್ || ೨.೭ ||

kArpaNya dOSha-upahata swabhAvaH pRucChAmi tvAM dharma sammUDha chEtAH
yat shrEyaH syAt nishchitaM brUhi tat mE shiShyaH tE ahaM shAdhi mAM tvAM prapannam || 2.7 ||

My very natural courage is overpowered by the vice of faint-heartedness. I am confused regarding the righteousness. I am asking you; please tell me decisively which is the preferable right path for me? I am your disciple; seeking your refuge; kindly instruct me.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.8

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

न हि प्रपश्यामि मम अपनुद्यात् यत् शॊकं उच्छॊषणं इंद्रियाणाम्
अवाप्य भूमासु असपत्नं ऋद्धं राज्यं सुराणां अपि च आधिपत्यम् ॥ २.८ ॥

ನ ಹಿ ಪ್ರಪಶ್ಯಾಮಿ ಮಮ ಅಪನುದ್ಯಾತ್ ಯತ್ ಶೋಕಂ ಉಚ್ಛೋಷಣಂ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಾಮ್
ಅವಾಪ್ಯ ಭೂಮಾಸು ಅಸಪತ್ನಂ ಋದ್ಧಂ ರಾಜ್ಯಂ ಸುರಾಣಾಂ ಅಪಿ ಚ ಆಧಿಪತ್ಯಮ್ || ೨.೮ ||

na hi prapashyAmi mama apanudyAt yat shOkaM uchChOShaNaM iMdriyANAm
avApya bhUmAsu asapatnaM RuddhaM rAjyaM surANAM api cha Adhipatyam || 2.8 ||

Even if I should obtain a prosperous and un-rivaled kingdom on earth, or even the lordship over the demigods, I do not see that which could drive away the grief that is withering my senses

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.9

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

संजय उवाच :-
एवं उक्त्वा हृषीकॆशं गुडाकॆशः परंतपः
न यॊत्स्य इति गॊविंदं उक्त्वा तूष्णीं बभूव ह ॥ २.९ ॥

ಸಂಜಯ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಏವಂ ಉಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಹೃಷೀಕೇಶಂ ಗುಡಾಕೇಶಃ ಪರಂತಪಃ
ನ ಯೋತ್ಸ್ಯ ಇತಿ ಗೋವಿಂದಂ ಉಕ್ತ್ವಾ ತೂಷ್ಣೀಂ ಬಭೂವ ಹ || ೨.೯ ||

saMjaya uvAcha :-
EvaM uktvA hRuSheekEshaM guDAkEshaH paraMtapaH
na yOtsya iti gOviMdaM uktvA tUShNeeM babhUva ha || 2.9 ||

Sanjaya said:
Having spoken to Hrishikesha thus, guDAkesha; the terror of foes; said to Govinda “I will not fight” and became silent.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.10

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

तं उवाच हृषीकॆशः प्रहसन् इव भारत
सॆनयॊः उभयॊः मध्यॆ विषीदंतं इदं वचः ॥ २.१० ॥

ತಂ ಉವಾಚ ಹೃಷೀಕೇಶಃ ಪ್ರಹಸನ್ ಇವ ಭಾರತ
ಸೇನಯೋಃ ಉಭಯೋಃ ಮಧ್ಯೇ ವಿಷೀದಂತಂ ಇದಂ ವಚಃ || ೨.೧೦ ||

taM uvAcha hRuSheekEshaH prahasan iva bhArata
sEnayOH ubhayOH madhyE viSheedaMtaM idaM vachaH || 2.10 ||

O BhArata, Lord Hrisheekesha in a laughing mood spoke these words to the despondent Arjuna in the midst of the two armies.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.11

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

श्री भगवान् उवाच :-
अशॊच्यान् अन्वशॊचः त्वं प्रज्ञा वादाः च भाषसॆ
गतासून् अगतासून् च न अनुशॊचंति पंडिताः ॥ २.११ ॥

ಶ್ರೀ ಭಗವಾನ್ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಅಶೋಚ್ಯಾನ್ ಅನ್ವಶೋಚಃ ತ್ವಂ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾ ವಾದಾಃ ಚ ಭಾಷಸೇ
ಗತಾಸೂನ್ ಅಗತಾಸೂನ್ ಚ ನ ಅನುಶೋಚಂತಿ ಪಂಡಿತಾಃ || ೨.೧೧ ||

shree bhagavAn uvAcha :-
ashOchyAn anvashOchaH tvaM praj~jA vAdAH cha bhAShasE
gatAsUn agatAsUn cha na anushOchaMti paMDitAH || 2.11 ||

The Supreme Lord said: You grieve for those who are not worthy of grief, and yet speak the words of wisdom. The wise grieve neither for the living nor for the dead.

Oh Arjuna, thou art grieving about persons who are not worthy of sorrow. You speak out arguments from your independent (egoistic) reasoning.

The wise grieve not for the dead (or for those whom death awaits) and (as one does not grieve) for the living.

or

Just as the living do not deserve to be grieved for, so also the dead as well as for whom death awaits need not be grieved for.

Why this is so? This is beautifully explained in the next verse by Shri Hari who is full of Jnana. Only followers of Acharya Madhwa can give such correct explanations.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.12

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

न तु एव अहं जातु न आसं न त्वं न इमॆ जनाधिपाः
न च ऎव न भविष्यामः सर्वॆ वयं अतः परम् ॥ २.१२ ॥

ನ ತು ಏವ ಅಹಂ ಜಾತು ನ ಆಸಂ ನ ತ್ವಂ ನ ಇಮೇ ಜನಾಧಿಪಾಃ
ನ ಚ ಏವ ನ ಭವಿಷ್ಯಾಮಃ ಸರ್ವೇ ವಯಂ ಅತಃ ಪರಮ್ || ೨.೧೨ ||

na tu Eva ahaM jAtu na AsaM na tvaM na imE janAdhipAH
na cha Eva na bhaviShyAmaH sarvE vayaM ataH param || 2.12 ||

Certainly there was never a time in the past when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; and certainly never in future we all cease to exist.

Means, we all, including the Supreme Lord, existed at all times in the past, and also will continue to exist in the future.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.13

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

दॆहिनः अस्मिन् यथा दॆहॆ कौमारं यौवनं जरा
तथा दॆहांतर प्राप्तिः धीरः तत्र न मुह्यति ॥ २.१३ ॥

ದೇಹಿನಃ ಅಸ್ಮಿನ್ ಯಥಾ ದೇಹೇ ಕೌಮಾರಂ ಯೌವನಂ ಜರಾ
ತಥಾ ದೇಹಾಂತರ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ತಿಃ ಧೀರಃ ತತ್ರ ನ ಮುಹ್ಯತಿ || ೨.೧೩ ||

dEhinaH asmin yathA dEhE kaumAraM yauvanaM jarA
tathA dEhAMtara prAptiH dheeraH tatra na muhyati || 2.13 ||

Just as childhood, youth and old age befall the dweller of the body while in the same body, so also the change of body befalls him; the wise one therefore does not become perplexed.

As said in 2:11 the wise do NOT grieve for the dead as for the living. Why?

Because Wise know that

1. Soul is eternal as said in 2:12.

2. One may still feel sad on account of loss of body. For this it is stated in 2:13 that wise know that just as living or embodied beings undergo change in bodies from childhood to old age, so do the dead change their bodies. The wise are aware of this and so do NOT grieve for the loss of body as well.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.14

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment

मात्रा स्पर्शः तु कौंतॆय शीतॊष्ण सुखदुःख दाः
आगम अपायिनः अनित्याः तान् तितिक्षस्वः भारत ॥ २.१४ ॥

ಮಾತ್ರಾ ಸ್ಪರ್ಶಃ ತು ಕೌಂತೇಯ ಶೀತೋಷ್ಣ ಸುಖದುಃಖ ದಾಃ
ಆಗಮ ಅಪಾಯಿನಃ ಅನಿತ್ಯಾಃ ತಾನ್ ತಿತಿಕ್ಷಸ್ವಃ ಭಾರತ || ೨.೧೪ ||

mAtrA sparshaH tu kauMtEya sheetOShNa sukhaduHkha dAH
Agama apAyinaH anityAH tAn titikShasvaH bhArata || 2.14 ||

Oh Arjuna is it the contact of senses with sense objects alone the cause of pleasure and pain arising from sensations of cold and heat? They come and go and are impermanent. Render them ineffective Arjuna.

Explanation:

Most schools explain this verse as one should just tolerate pleasure and pain as they are impermanent. Such an explanation is no explanation at all for a person in pain. It does not provide any insight.

Arjuna, being aparoksha Jnani, is already aware of the soul and body as explained in 2:12-13. Yet he is sad. So Shri Hari directly addresses the problem of Arjuna in this verse. It is one of the most important verses in Gita.

When Shri Krishna asks Arjuna this “is it the contact of senses alone…”, he expects an answer NO. It is “abhimana” that is is the real crux of the problem. When a person is in deep sleep, he is NOT aware of the sensations of heat of cold even though the sense of touch is working in this case. In other words the jIvAtma does not have abhimana to its body in deep sleep.

Similarly Arjuna’s problem here is attachment to his relatives, namely Bheeshmacharya, Dronacharya etc. I have read this verse before and never realized the depth of knowledge Shri Krishna provides. Anyway the crux of problem is mamakara, identification of objects as mine etc.

So if one gets rid of this kind of attachment with the correct knowledge that all things belongs to Shri Hari alone, one is freed from the dvandva moha of pleasure and pain. This is how one renders the senses and their connection with happiness and pain ineffective.

Shri Subachar also says (I do not fully understand) the verse is to be read in kakusvara. It is to be read in low voice and with contempt which brings the real hidden meaning of the verse.

The restrictive clause “They come and go” is added to show that mere contact between senses and objects alone cannot be responsible for happiness and sorrow or pleasure and pain. This clause restricts the attributes of contact between senses and objects or is predicated of the contacts.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.15

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यं हि न व्यथयंति एतॆ पुरुषं पुरुष-ऋषभ
सम दुःख सुखं धीरं सः अमृतत्वाय कल्पते ॥ २.१५ ॥

ಯಂ ಹಿ ನ ವ್ಯಥಯಂತಿ ಏತೇ ಪುರುಷಂ ಪುರುಷ-ಋಷಭ
ಸಮ ದುಃಖ ಸುಖಂ ಧೀರಂ ಸಃ ಅಮೃತತ್ವಾಯ ಕಲ್ಪತೆ || ೨.೧೫ ||

yaM hi na vyathayaMti EtE puruShaM puruSha-RuShabha
sama duHkha sukhaM dheeraM saH amRutatvAya kalpate || 2.15 ||

O Bull among men, whomsoever destitute of attachment, whom the prospect of pleasure and pain does not at all agitate, that Purusha, who is capable of keeping himself above the influence of exhilaration or dejection that may be produced by the pleasurable or painful sensations, is able to tread the path of Mukti

As a Kshatriya it is Arjuna’s paramount duty to uphold dharma and destroy adharma without expecting material results as pooja to Shri Krishna. To an ignorant mind it may appear that avoiding pain is good. However, a far greater purusharta is leaving abhimana and the fruit of this is Moksha (amRutatvAya kalpate) itself.

3. The word Purusha is usually translated as “man”. This is incorrect in this context. Purusha (puram sharati) also means one who is awake and aware.

This word also means one who has knowledge of Brahma and is competent or qualified to walk the path of Moksha. By the use of this word “Purushah”, Shri Krishna indicates that one who leaves of abhimana or attachment he attains Brahma Jnana and Moksha.

4. dhIra – brave and wise

He is brave and wise because he does not lament when sorrow comes and get intoxicated when happiness (sukha in some form) comes. His mind is always equipoised.

5. Sama-duhka sukam:

Most translators wrongly translate this part as treating sorrow and happiness as same. This makes no sense at all. Happiness and sorrow are NOT same whether you are dhira or not.

What this means is that a dhira is NOT affected by material conditions. The translation is very correct.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.16

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 0 Comment


न असतः विद्यते भावः न अभावः विद्यते सतः
उभयॊः अपि दृष्टः अंतः तु अनयॊः तत्व दर्शिभिः ॥ २.१६ ॥

ನ ಅಸತಃ ವಿದ್ಯತೆ ಭಾವಃ ನ ಅಭಾವಃ ವಿದ್ಯತೆ ಸತಃ
ಉಭಯೋಃ ಅಪಿ ದೃಷ್ಟಃ ಅಂತಃ ತು ಅನಯೋಃ ತತ್ವ ದರ್ಶಿಭಿಃ || ೨.೧೬ ||

na asataH vidyate bhAvaH na abhAvaH vidyate sataH
ubhayOH api dRuShTaH aMtaH tu anayOH tatva darshibhiH || 2.16 ||

From the unrighteousness results no happiness, from righteousness results no miserable; of both these facts, the conclusion as handed down is actually observed by those who have seen the Truth

The great and the wise have not only received the traditional view but have also actually observed its conclusive and truthful character, that a righteous deed never leads to misery, nor an unrighteous deed to happiness.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.17

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अविनाशि तु तत् विद्धि यॆन सर्वं इदं ततम्
विनाशं अव्ययस्य अस्य न कश्चित् कर्तुं अर्हति ॥ २.१७ ॥

ಅವಿನಾಶಿ ತು ತತ್ ವಿದ್ಧಿ ಯೇನ ಸರ್ವಂ ಇದಂ ತತಮ್
ವಿನಾಶಂ ಅವ್ಯಯಸ್ಯ ಅಸ್ಯ ನ ಕಶ್ಚಿತ್ ಕರ್ತುಂ ಅರ್ಹತಿ || ೨.೧೭ ||

avinAshi tu tat viddhi yEna sarvaM idaM tatam
vinAshaM avyayasya asya na kashchit kartuM arhati || 2.17 ||

Absolutely indestructible is that by itself, by which all this is pervaded; no one can work the destruction of this, which is irreducible.

The all-pervading is not only indestructible (that does not become decayed by virtue of its own nature) but is also destitute of beginning. There is nothing powerful enough to destroy what is irreducible or immutable.

some info on 2:17
First Meaning

yEna idaM sarvaM tatam, tat avinAshi tu viddhi = By which entity this whole world is pervaded, that entity which is eternal and permanent, is to be known

avyayasya asya vinAshaM kartuM kashchit na arhati = That entity without change and pervaded in all places cannot be destroyed by anyone.

In this meaning, AchArya points out the niyatva of

1. varna or Sanskrit letters
2. avyakrta akasha
3. Time.

These three are all pervading an have no destruction.

Second Meaning:

yEna idaM sarvaM tatam, tat tu avinAshi = By that Eswara this whole Universe is pervaded. That Eswara, Shri Vishnu, is indestructible in a special manner.

viddhi = know it

avyayasya asya = For ths indestructible God

na kashchit vinAshaM kartuM arhati = No one is able to destroy.

—————————————————-

na arhati = Nobody is able to destroy. One may think that world can be destroyed by somebody (other than Shri Hari) by curse or other ways, although by nature world is eternal. This part confirms that nobody is able to do it.

tu = This word brings the specialty of Visnu being non-destructible in a unique way.

Varaha Purana states that destruction is of four kinds.

1. Non-permanent (anityatvaM)
2. Loss of body (dehahAnih )
3. attainment of grief (duhkaprApti)
4. imperfection (apurnatvam)

a. All four kinds of destruction is seen in case of pot, cloth etc.

b. Anityatvam is NOT there for jIva, but all the other three exists.

c. anityatvaM, dehahAnih, duhkaprApti are absent in Mahalakshmi, but apurnatva is there in Her.

d. All the four are ALWAYS absent in Shri Hari, Who is supreme.

This meaning is brought out by the word ‘tu’ in this context.

tatam = vyAptaM = pervaded, which includes three important factors.

1. Present everywhere (deshatah vyAptaM)
2. Present at all times (kAlatah vyAptaM)
3. Present with all limitless perfection. (gunatah vyAptaM)

a. All three are applicable ONLY to Shri Vishnu.

b. For jIva, only kAlah vyAptaM applies, NOT the other two.

c. For loka mata Lakshmi Devi, deshatah vyAptaM and kAlatah vyAptaM applies but NOT gunatah vyAptaM

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.18

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अंतवंत इमॆ दॆहा नित्यस्य उक्ताः शरीरिणः
अनाशिनः अप्रमॆयस्य तस्मात् युध्यस्व भारत ॥ २.१८ ॥

ಅಂತವಂತ ಇಮೇ ದೇಹಾ ನಿತ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಉಕ್ತಾಃ ಶರೀರಿಣಃ
ಅನಾಶಿನಃ ಅಪ್ರಮೇಯಸ್ಯ ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಯುಧ್ಯಸ್ವ ಭಾರತ || ೨.೧೮ ||

aMtavaMta imE dEhA nityasya uktAH shareeriNaH
anAshinaH apramEyasya tasmAt yudhyasva bhArata || 2.18 ||

Destructible are these bodies of the eternal souls, who are dwellers in the body. The souls themselves are indestructible and immeasurable; therefore fight O Arjuna

Meaning 1:

apramEyasya anAshinaH nityasya shareeriNaH imE dEhA aMtavaMta uktAH

Having negligible similarity with Bhagavan, who is all-pervasive, indestructible, and eternal, these gross bodies visible to the eyes possessed by the jIvas are destructible.

tasmAt bhArata yudhyasva

Therefore Arjuna wage this dharmic war.

Meaning 2:

nityasya shareeriNaH imE dEhA aMtavaMta uktAH

These jIvas having eternal and imperishable svarupa dehas is said to possess gross bodies that are perishable.

tasmAt bhArata anAshinaH apramEyasya yudhyasva

Therefore as puja to the Lord who does NOT have four kinds of destruction, wage this dharmic war.

Some points:

1. Every jIva has its own bimba rupa. Darshana of bimba rupa is necessary for Moksha even though all rupas of Lord are equal. One of the upanishads talk about this. rupam rupam pratirupo babhuva…

2. When it is said that jIva is pratibimba of Lord, it talks about dependence of jIva on Lord and NOT taken literally.

3. In Mahabharatha Tatparyanirnaya, Acharya talks about Rudra deva being reflection of Mukhyaprana etc. It may seem that this is contradicting point 1 which says all jIvas are pratibimba of Lord.

However, since pratibimba or reflection means dependence on Lord, it can be explained. Rudra Deva is dependent on both Mukhyaprana and more on Lord.

4. Ectype is Bimba or paramtma.

Prototype is Pratibimba

Mirror is Upadhi.

There are two kinds of prototypes.

One having a reflecting media like a mirror or pond. Another not having any separate reflecting media, but the reflection and reflecting media coincides, like the case of rainbow.

jIva belongs to the second category where its svarupa itself is the reflecting media.

5. Since Lord is anAshinaH (indestructible), jIvas are eternal (nitya).

6. It could be asked, if the Bimba stands outside the limit of upadhi, there can be no pratibimba. To clear this doubt it is said apramEyasya, i.e. all-pervasive. Another meaning of this word is one who cannot be known completely.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.19

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यः एनं वॆत्ति हंतारं यः च एनं मन्यते हतम्
उभौ तौ न विजानीतः न अयं हंति न हन्यते ॥ २.१९ ॥

ಯಃ ಏನಂ ವೇತ್ತಿ ಹಂತಾರಂ ಯಃ ಚ ಏನಂ ಮನ್ಯತೆ ಹತಮ್
ಉಭೌ ತೌ ನ ವಿಜಾನೀತಃ ನ ಅಯಂ ಹಂತಿ ನ ಹನ್ಯತೆ || ೨.೧೯ ||

yaH EnaM vEtti haMtAraM yaH cha EnaM manyate hatam
ubhau tau na vijAneetaH na ayaM haMti na hanyate || 2.19 ||

The person who thinks that ‘this’ soul is the independent agent in killing ‘that’ soul, and the person who thinks ‘that’ soul is killed by ‘this’ soul acting independently – both these persons do not perceive the truth; because a soul neither slays nor is slain

yaH EnaM haMtAraM vEtti yaH cha EnaM hatam manyate tau ubhau na vijAneetaH

Whoever thinks he has killed independently and whoever thinks that another peson was killed, both of them have not understood the truth and are under delusion.

ayaM na haMti na hanyate

The soul neither kills nor is killed.

Some relevant questions.

1. What is the sense of the word “kill” here?

By upalakshana it stands for all actions.

2. Does it include the common meaning of separating body and soul?

Even in this case the verse is applicable as jIva is NOT independent agent. jIva acts as per its karma as allowed by Lord.

3. If it stands for all actions, then does it not say that jIva is actionless? Is this position sound?

Dependence not does not necessarily imply jIva is without free will and action. As jIva is completely dependent on Lord for all actions, jIva is actionless only relative to the actions of God.

4. Who are the two persons said to be gnorant.

a. One who thinks jIvas are independent in performing actions.
b. One who thinks jIvas are not eternal.

5. Since Arjuna lamented in earlier verses that Bhisma and other may be killed by him, Shri Krishna enlightens Arjuna that he is NOT independent agent here and is only a subordinate agent.

Shri Krishna explains to Udhava in Bhagavatam 11:16:7 as given below.

jñātvā jñāti-vadhaḿ garhyamadharmaḿ rājya-hetukam
tato nivṛtto hantāham hato’yam iti laukikaḥ
sa tadā puruṣa-vyāghro yuktyā me pratibodhitaḥ

My dear friend Arjuna refused to fight under the wrong idea that he was the killer and the foe was liable to be killed by him. I dispelled his doubt.

Shri Krishna then repeats the vibhuti adhyaya (10th chapter) of Gita in Bhagavatam to show to Udhava how He dispelled the doubt of Arjuna. In short Shri Krishna is present in everything excellent and He is the independent doer. hence Vibhuti adhyaya is expansion of this verse.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.20

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न जायतॆ म्रियतॆ वा कदाचिन् न अयं भूत्वा भविता वा न भूयः
अजः नित्यः शाश्वतः अयं पुराणः न हन्यतॆ हन्यमानॆ शरीरॆ ॥ २.२० ॥

ನ ಜಾಯತೇ ಮ್ರಿಯತೇ ವಾ ಕದಾಚಿನ್ ನ ಅಯಂ ಭೂತ್ವಾ ಭವಿತಾ ವಾ ನ ಭೂಯಃ
ಅಜಃ ನಿತ್ಯಃ ಶಾಶ್ವತಃ ಅಯಂ ಪುರಾಣಃ ನ ಹನ್ಯತೇ ಹನ್ಯಮಾನೇ ಶರೀರೇ || ೨.೨೦ ||

na jAyatE mriyatE vA kadAchin na ayaM bhUtvA bhavitA vA na bhUyaH
ajaH nityaH shAshvataH ayaM purANaH na hanyatE hanyamAnE shareerE || 2.20 ||

Neither is he (soul or jeeva) born, nor does he die; and having been once in existence, he is not to be produced again; he is unborn and indestructible; he is eternally of the same character; he is a wanderer through the bodies; he is not slain when the body is slain.

This same verse can be translated in another way with first half describing the Lord, and the other half describing the soul:

This highest person (Lord) is neither produced, nor destroyed; having been for ever in existence, He at times becomes manifest, but He is never born [with a physical body].
This soul too is unborn, indestructible and eternally of the same character, being the wanderer through the bodies; but he is not destroyed even when the body is destroyed.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.21

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वॆद अविनाशिनं नित्यं यः एनं अजं अव्ययम्
कथं सः पुरुषः पार्थ कं घातयति हंति कम् ॥ २.२१ ॥

ವೇದ ಅವಿನಾಶಿನಂ ನಿತ್ಯಂ ಯಃ ಏನಂ ಅಜಂ ಅವ್ಯಯಮ್
ಕಥಂ ಸಃ ಪುರುಷಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಕಂ ಘಾತಯತಿ ಹಂತಿ ಕಮ್ || ೨.೨೧ ||

vEda avinAshinaM nityaM yaH EnaM ajaM avyayam
kathaM saH puruShaH pArtha kaM ghAtayati haMti kam || 2.21 ||

One who knows that the soul is eternal, unborn, imperishable and indestructible, how can that person think of himself killing or causing another to kill or to be killed?

Another meaning:
One who knows this imperishable, indestructible, unborn, unmodified Lord [as the absolute ruler], how can such a person think of himself becoming the destroyer of anything or causing any other to bring about destruction?

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.22

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वासंति जीर्णानि यथा विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरः अपराणि
तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णानि अन्यानि संयाति नवानि दॆही ॥ २.२२ ॥

ವಾಸಂತಿ ಜೀರ್ಣಾನಿ ಯಥಾ ವಿಹಾಯ ನವಾನಿ ಗೃಹ್ಣಾತಿ ನರಃ ಅಪರಾಣಿ
ತಥಾ ಶರೀರಾಣಿ ವಿಹಾಯ ಜೀರ್ಣಾನಿ ಅನ್ಯಾನಿ ಸಂಯಾತಿ ನವಾನಿ ದೇಹೀ || ೨.೨೨ ||

vAsaMti jeerNAni yathA vihAya navAni gRuhNAti naraH aparANi
tathA shareerANi vihAya jeerNAni anyAni saMyAti navAni dEhI || 2.22 ||

Just as a person having cast off the worn out cloth, gets other fresh ones, so also the dweller of the body (i.e., soul) casts off the worn out body and goes on to other fresh ones.

naraH yathA vAsaMsi jeerNAni vihAya, navAni aparANi gRuhNAti

Just as a person abandons old clothes and takes on new clothes

tathA dEhI jeerNAni shareerANi vihAya, anyAni navAni saMyAti || 2.22 ||

likewise the soul takes new bodies abandoning worn out bodies.

Some points

1. purANaH := jIvaH

It was understood as purANi := anEka dEhAni aNati iti, takes on different bodies and resides there.

2. In verse 13 a person was said to be dhIrah when he understands the difference between body and soul. In this verse a good example is given.

3. jeerNAni – worn out

This word does NOT merely mean worn out, but also “fulfillment of a purpose as per His desire.” Death and body being wornout is NOT merely due to old age alone, but includes other cases such as abhimanyu’s case of war etc.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.23

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न एनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि न एनं दहति पावकः
न च एनं क्लॆदयन्ति आपः न शॊषयति मारुतः ॥ २.२३ ॥

ನ ಏನಂ ಛಿಂದಂತಿ ಶಸ್ತ್ರಾಣಿ ನ ಏನಂ ದಹತಿ ಪಾವಕಃ
ನ ಚ ಏನಂ ಕ್ಲೇದಯಂತಿ ಆಪಃ ನ ಶೋಷಯತಿ ಮಾರುತಃ || ೨.೨೩ ||

na EnaM ChiMdaMti shastrANi na EnaM dahati pAvakaH
na cha EnaM klEdayaMti ApaH na shOShayati mArutaH || 2.23 ||

Weapons do not cut him, Fire does not burn him, Water does not wet him, Wind does not dry him. (him = the dweller in the body = soul)

Points:

1. According to Gita Bhashya EnaM applies to paramatma, while according to Tatparya it applies to jIva.

2. In this verse destruction of jIva, by natural or accidental causes or even extra-ordinary or special causes like Daksha sacrifice is ruled out.

3. As per grammar using the word EnaM once is enough. Yet this word is used thrice. This is to stress and make a strong emphasis to Arjuna the the jIva dwelling within Arjuna’s body and the jIvas within other bodies are eternal.

In the case of EnaM referring to Shri Krishna, it establishes that His deha (chidanandasvarupasya bhagavat dEhasya acChEdatvAt) being indestructible also.

In this case the repetition establishes that His avataras are not different. There is no difference among them and there is no gradation between them.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.24

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अच्छॆद्यः अयं अदाह्यः अयं अक्लॆद्यः अशॊष्य एव च
नित्यः सर्वगतः स्थाणुः अचलः अयं सनातनः ॥ २.२४ ॥

ಅಚ್ಛೇದ್ಯಃ ಅಯಂ ಅದಾಹ್ಯಃ ಅಯಂ ಅಕ್ಲೇದ್ಯಃ ಅಶೋಷ್ಯ ಏವ ಚ
ನಿತ್ಯಃ ಸರ್ವಗತಃ ಸ್ಥಾಣುಃ ಅಚಲಃ ಅಯಂ ಸನಾತನಃ || ೨.೨೪ ||

acChEdyaH ayaM adAhyaH ayaM aklEdyaH ashOShya Eva cha
nityaH sarvagataH sthANuH achalaH ayaM sanAtanaH || 2.24 ||

He, the soul, is uncleavable, incombustible, can neither be wetted nor dried; he is eternal, all-pervading, stable, unmoved and primordial

acChEdyaH ayaM adAhyaH ayaM aklEdyaH ashOShya Eva cha

He, the soul, is uncleavable, incombustible, can neither be wetted nor dried;

The translation for the second part of the verse is wrong in my opinion. This part requires careful analysis, otherwise it could lead to advaita interpretations, calling soul as all-pervasive.

nityaH sarvagataHsthANuH achalaH ayaM sanAtanaH || 2.24 ||

This soul is eternally (nityaH) resting (sthA) on the omnipresent (sarvagataH) unchanging (sthANuH) Lord, this soul is unaffected by physical motion of matter like the Lord and subject to spiritual dos and donts.

or

This soul is resting on the eternally omnipresent unchanging Lord, this soul cannot move on its own accord independent of Lord and dependent on Lord as His prototype.

Points:

1. When it was stated in the previous verse that soul cannot be cut etc., why is it repeated here?

The previous verse was in present tense and somebody may think soul can destroyed in future. To remove this doubt it is stated here clearly that it is NOT so.

2. A doubt may arise, if soul is eternal like Lord, why should one worship Him? To clear this the second part is said.

ayaM nityaH sarvagataHsthANuH

Tha part is bold is a compound word. nityaH qualifies both sarvagataH as well as sthA (resting). Look for meanings above.

3. achalaH = Always dependent on Lord and cannot move on its own accord independently.

In case of Lord it refers to Him being not affected by matter. It also means being without any kind of worldly activity like jIvas.

4. sthANuH = Not mutable or unchangeable. Because of His achintyAdbhuta shakti He is unchangeable even though He is responsible for creation etc. activities.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.25

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अव्यक्तः अयं अचिन्त्यः अयं अविकार्यः अयं उच्यतॆ
तस्मात् एवं विदित्वा एनं न अनुशॊचितुं अर्हसि ॥ २.२५ ॥

ಅವ್ಯಕ್ತಃ ಅಯಂ ಅಚಿಂತ್ಯಃ ಅಯಂ ಅವಿಕಾರ್ಯಃ ಅಯಂ ಉಚ್ಯತೇ
ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಏವಂ ವಿದಿತ್ವಾ ಏನಂ ನ ಅನುಶೋಚಿತುಂ ಅರ್ಹಸಿ || ೨.೨೫ ||

avyaktaH ayaM achiMtyaH ayaM avikAryaH ayaM uchyatE
tasmAt EvaM viditvA EnaM na anushOchituM arhasi || 2.25 ||

He is un-manifest; He is incomprehensible; He is not changeable; He is so described by the Shrutis. Therefore it is not fit for you to grieve, having known this (soul) to be such,

The eternal existence of the soul being established on the threefold ground that the soul is not destructible – (1) by the interruption of the relation of the Lord whose image he is, (2) by the curses or boons, (3) by the action of weapons; you knowing the jeeva to be eternal, etc., there is no reason for you to grieve for him.

ayaM avyaktaH = Shri Hari is subtle and invisible

ayaM achiMtyaH = He is beyond human contemplation of mind

ayaM avikAryaH = He is always the same without any change

uchyatE = told so in Vedic authorities

tasmAt EnaM EvaM viditvA anushOchituM na arhasi = Therefore jIva is eternal (being pratibimba of Shri Hari). having thus understood, there is no reason to feel sorrow over it and it is NOT fit to feel sorrrow over the soul.

or

tasmAt = Therfore having understood that Shri Hari alone is independent and gives moksha by removing all sorrow.

EnaM = That BhagavAn

EvaM = Likewise (He is avyakta)

viditvA anushOchituM na arhasi = Having understood Shri Hari like this, if the dharmic war is fought, Arjuna is not fit for sorrow f material world, i.e. he will attain Moksha.

Points:

1. Why is Paramatma NOT sBlogger: Tatvavaada Philosophy – Create Posteen even though He is all pervasive. This is answered as avyakta, he is subtle.

2. How is it possible for Shri hari to have a body then? He is achiMtyaH, beyond human mind.

3. Can His achiNtyashakti be destroyed anytime? This is answered as He is avikAryaH, unchanging.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.26

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अथ च एनं नित्यजातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम्
तथापि त्वं महाबाहो न एवं शोचितुं अर्हसि ॥ २.२६ ॥

ಅಥ ಚ ಏನಂ ನಿತ್ಯಜಾತಂ ನಿತ್ಯಂ ವಾ ಮನ್ಯಸೇ ಮೃತಮ್
ತಥಾಪಿ ತ್ವಂ ಮಹಾಬಾಹೋ ನ ಏವಂ ಶೋಚಿತುಂ ಅರ್ಹಸಿ || ೨.೨೬ ||

atha cha EnaM nityajAtaM nityaM vA manyasE mRutam
tathApi tvaM mahAbAhO na EvaM shOchituM arhasi || 2.26 ||

Now, if you were to think of him as having birth alone, or having death alone, even then, O mighty armed man, it is not fit for you to grieve

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.27

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जातस्य हि ध्रुवः मृत्युः ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च
तस्मात् अपरिहार्ये अर्थे न त्वं शोचितुं अर्हसि ॥ २.२७ ॥

ಜಾತಸ್ಯ ಹಿ ಧ್ರುವಃ ಮೃತ್ಯುಃ ಧ್ರುವಂ ಜನ್ಮ ಮೃತಸ್ಯ ಚ
ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಅಪರಿಹಾರ್ಯೇ ಅರ್ಥೇ ನ ತ್ವಂ ಶೋಚಿತುಂ ಅರ್ಹಸಿ || ೨.೨೭ ||

jAtasya hi dhruvaH mRutyuH dhruvaM janma mRutasya cha
tasmAt aparihAryE arthE na tvaM shOchituM arhasi || 2.27 |
|

For the one who is born, death is certain, and for the one who is dead, birth is certain. Therefore you should not grieve for an inevitable situation.

1. In verse 26 and 27, Shri Krishna answers question regarding the grief over destruction of bodies. Since death of this body is inevitable, it is not ft for Arjuna to grieve over inevitable sitation. It s better for him to discharge his duties.

2. aparihAryE = inevitable (verse 2:27)

3. aparihAryE also answers the question as to who can cure death.

The sanskrit alphabet “a” = brahma, i.e. Vishnu

parihAryE = can cure

So in this sense, it is an advice to Arjuna to leave the matter to Him and do his duty.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.28

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अव्यक्त आदीनि भूतानि व्यक्त मध्यानि भारत
अव्यक्त निधनानि एव तत्र का परिदॆवना ॥ २.२८ ॥

ಅವ್ಯಕ್ತ ಆದೀನಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ವ್ಯಕ್ತ ಮಧ್ಯಾನಿ ಭಾರತ
ಅವ್ಯಕ್ತ ನಿಧನಾನಿ ಏವ ತತ್ರ ಕಾ ಪರಿದೇವನಾ || ೨.೨೮ ||

avyakta Adeeni bhUtAni vyakta madhyAni bhArata
avyakta nidhanAni Eva tatra kA paridEvanA || 2.28 ||

Bodies (of souls) have their origin in the unmanifest, have a manifest middle, and indeed have their end in the unmanifest, O Bharata. What is there to be grieved at?

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.29

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आश्चर्यवत् पश्यति कश्चित् एनं आश्चर्यवत् वदति तथ एव च अन्यः
आश्चर्यवत् च एनं अन्यः शृणॊति श्रुत्वा अपि एनं वॆद न च एव कश्चित् ॥ २.२९ ॥

ಆಶ್ಚರ್ಯವತ್ ಪಶ್ಯತಿ ಕಶ್ಚಿತ್ ಏನಂ ಆಶ್ಚರ್ಯವತ್ ವದತಿ ತಥ ಏವ ಚ ಅನ್ಯಃ
ಆಶ್ಚರ್ಯವತ್ ಚ ಏನಂ ಅನ್ಯಃ ಶೃಣೋತಿ ಶ್ರುತ್ವಾ ಅಪಿ ಏನಂ ವೇದ ನ ಚ ಏವ ಕಶ್ಚಿತ್ || ೨.೨೯ ||

Ashcharyavat pashyati kashchit EnaM Ashcharyavat vadati tatha Eva cha anyaH
Ashcharyavat cha EnaM anyaH shRuNOti shrutvA api EnaM vEda na cha Eva kashcit || 2.29 ||

Someone perceives Him as a wonder; someone speaks of Him as a wonder; someone hears of Him as a wonder; yet having heard, one may not know Him at all.

He who knows this soul to be only a likeness of the eternal and the unborn Lord, to be absolutely under the control of the Lord, such a person is indeed a wonder. Similarly a person who speaks of or hears of the jeeva as such is indeed very rare to meet with.

That is, it is hard to find him who understands that the jeeva is only a likeness of the Lord. Then who could possibly understand and describe the glorious nature and powers of the Lord?

Ashcharyavat pashyati kashchit EnaM Ashcharyavat vadati tatha Eva cha anyaH
Ashcharyavat cha EnaM anyaH shRuNOti shrutvA api EnaM vEda na cha Eva kashcit || 2.29 ||

1. in this verse EnaM refers to both paramatma and jIva.

2. kashchit = someone… This word is used to how that NOT every jIva is eligible, but few qualified jIvas.

3. The words shrutvA api EnaM vEda na cha Eva kashcit shows that Shri Hari cannot be knowm completely by anybody.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.30

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दॆही नित्यं अवध्यः अयं दॆहॆ सर्वस्य भारत
तस्मात् सर्वाणि भूतानि न त्वं शॊचितुं अर्हसि ॥ २.३० ॥

ದೇಹೀ ನಿತ್ಯಂ ಅವಧ್ಯಃ ಅಯಂ ದೇಹೇ ಸರ್ವಸ್ಯ ಭಾರತ
ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಸರ್ವಾಣಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ನ ತ್ವಂ ಶೋಚಿತುಂ ಅರ್ಹಸಿ || ೨.೩೦ ||

dEhee nityaM avadhyaH ayaM dEhE sarvasya bhArata
tasmAt sarvANi bhUtAni na tvaM shOchituM arhasi || 2.30 ||

The dweller in the body is ever indestructible; O Bharata, He is in the body of everyone. Therefore you should not grieve for any creature.

In the body of everyone, He (the Lord) stands as the protector; so the soul who dwells in the body is ever indestructible. Therefore since the Lord stands there as the protector and consequently the soul cannot be annihilated, you have no reason to grieve for any being.

This verse needs to be carefully explained.

bhArata, sarvasya dEhE ayaM (tishtati) = Arjuna born in the family of Bharata, Shri Hari dwelling the sthula deha, linga deha and svarupa deha of jIvas, protects the jIvas.

This part is incorrectly explained by advaita school as jIva in singular being referred to as being present in all bodies and thereby proving identitu of jiva and Brahman.

dEhee nityaM avadhyaH = jIva is eternally indestructible (as Shri hari Himself protects as given above).

tasmAt tvaM sarvANi bhUtAni shOchituM na arhasi = Therefore Arjuna you should NOT grieve over jIvas and you are not fit for this grief.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.31

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स्वधर्मं अपि च अवॆक्ष्य न विकम्पितुं अर्हसि
धर्म्यात् हि युद्धात् श्रॆयः अन्यात् क्षत्रियस्य न विद्यतॆ ॥ २.३१ ॥

ಸ್ವಧರ್ಮಂ ಅಪಿ ಚ ಅವೇಕ್ಷ್ಯ ನ ವಿಕಂಪಿತುಂ ಅರ್ಹಸಿ
ಧರ್ಮ್ಯಾತ್ ಹಿ ಯುದ್ಧಾತ್ ಶ್ರೇಯಃ ಅನ್ಯಾತ್ ಕ್ಷತ್ರಿಯಸ್ಯ ನ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ || ೨.೩೧ ||

svadharmaM api cha avEkShya na vikaMpituM arhasi
dharmyAt hi yuddhAt shrEyaH anyAt kShatriyasya na vidyatE || 2.31 ||

Even having regard to your won duty, you should not tremble; for, a kshatriya has nothing more praiseworthy to do than to wage a dutiful war.

svadharmaM api cha avEkShya vikaMpituM na arhasi

Having understood war is your duty, there is no need to fear about it.

kShatriyasya dharmyAt yuddhAt anyAt shrEyas na vidyatE, hi

For a Kshatriya, there is nothing else more than waging the war, would bring happiness in the other world andbe beneficial than this. This is very popular and authentic.

Points:

1. In verse 1:29 ARjuna says vEpathuH cha shareerE mE = My body is trembling. For this Shri Krishna is answering here to Arjuna not to fear.

In verse 1:31 Arjuna says na cha shrEyaH anupashyAmi = I do not see anything beneficial or greater good. For this Shri Krishna answers as

vikaMpituM na arhasi yuddhAt anyAt shrEyas na vidyatE iti

2. dharmyAt = dharmayuddhaH = Just war

3. Bhima is also called as dharma s he is incarnation of bhAgavatadharma. It also stands for Dharmaraja, the elder brother Yuddhishtra.

4. The word dharma also refers to Shri Krishna.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.32

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यदृच्छया च उपपन्नं स्वर्गद्वारं अपावृतम्
सुखिनः क्षत्रियाः पार्थ लभंतॆ युद्धं ईदृशम् ॥ २.३२ ॥

ಯದೃಚ್ಛಯಾ ಚ ಉಪಪನ್ನಂ ಸ್ವರ್ಗದ್ವಾರಂ ಅಪಾವೃತಮ್
ಸುಖಿನಃ ಕ್ಷತ್ರಿಯಾಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಲಭಂತೇ ಯುದ್ಧಂ ಈದೃಶಮ್ || ೨.೩೨ ||

yadRucChayA cha upapannaM svargadvAraM apAvRutam
sukhinaH kShatriyAH pArtha labhaMtE yuddhaM eedRusham || 2.32 ||

O Partha, happy are these kshatriyas who by their good fortune (without any effort of their own, or by the will of the Supreme Lord) achieved a battle of this kind, which is a wide open path to the Heaven.

Points:

1. In verse 1:36 (1:37 in some versions), Arjuna says

tasmAt na arhAH vayaM hantuM dhArtarAShTrAn sabAMdhavAn ….

how can he be happy after killing his relatives?

This is answered in this verse as

sukhinaH kShatriyAH labhaMtE eedRusham yuddhaM

2. eedRusham = like this

A war fought for justice or dharma. This is rarely a csae for soliers who are usually ordered to fight without thinking about whether war is just or not.

3. yadRucChayA = wihtout effort, by chance or accidental

If it happened this way, it is the Will of the Lord.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.33

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अथ चॆत् त्वं इमं धर्म्यं संग्रामं न करिष्यसि
ततः स्वधर्मं कीर्तिं च हित्वा पापं अवाप्स्यसि ॥ २.३३ ॥

ಅಥ ಚೇತ್ ತ್ವಂ ಇಮಂ ಧರ್ಮ್ಯಂ ಸಂಗ್ರಾಮಂ ನ ಕರಿಷ್ಯಸಿ
ತತಃ ಸ್ವಧರ್ಮಂ ಕೀರ್ತಿಂ ಚ ಹಿತ್ವಾ ಪಾಪಂ ಅವಾಪ್ಸ್ಯಸಿ || ೨.೩೩ ||

atha chEt tvaM imaM dharmyaM saMgrAmaM na kariShyasi
tataH swadharmaM keertiM cha hitvA pApaM avApsyasi || 2.33 ||

Further, if you do not wage this righteous war, you will be abandoning your own duty and honor, and thereby you will incur sin

Further, if you do not wage this righteous war, you will be abandoning your own duty and honor, and thereby you will incur sin

Points:

1. Arjuna in verse 1:36 says pApaM Eva AshrayEt asmAn hatvA EtAn AtatAyinaH= Only sin will take hold of us by slaying our kinsmen.

In this verse Shri krishna says that sin will come by NOT waging this dharmic war.

2. atha

This shabda is used to show the other side, the effects of NOT waging a war.

3. Verse 2:33-36 are stated by Shri Krishna to show the effects of NOT waging this dharmic war and to emphasize this war is dharmic.

4. imaM = this

This pronoun denotes the meritorious nature of this war and has the same meaning as the word eedRusham in the previous verse.

5. keertiM hitvA = Loss of honor or respect.

Make note that this says loss of honor and NOT loss of fame.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.34

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अकीर्तिं च अपि भूतानि कथयिष्यन्ति तॆ अव्ययाम्
सम्भावितस्य च अकीर्तिः मरणात् अतिरिच्यते ॥ २.३४ ॥

ಅಕೀರ್ತಿಂ ಚ ಅಪಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ಕಥಯಿಷ್ಯಂತಿ ತೇ ಅವ್ಯಯಾಮ್
ಸಂಭಾವಿತಸ್ಯ ಚ ಅಕೀರ್ತಿಃ ಮರಣಾತ್ ಅತಿರಿಚ್ಯತೆ || ೨.೩೪ ||

akeertiM cha api bhUtAni kathayiShyaMti tE avyayAm
saMbhAvitasya cha akeertiH maraNAt atirichyate || 2.34 ||

Also, all people will speak of your infamy (disgrace) for all the time; and for respected persons infamy is worse than death

api cha bhUtAni tE avyayAm akeertiM kathayiShyaMti

Further general public will criticize your eternal disrespectful activities (You may think, let them criticize, what is it to me)

To this Shri Krishna states

akeertiM cha saMbhAvitasya maraNAt atirichyate

Disrespect andinfamy are equal to death for those who have been well respected and honored in the society.

Points:

1. akeerti = disrespect

This word does not merely mean absence f fame, but positive dishonor.

2. saMbhAvitasya = well placed and well respected. Some of the reasons that this word is applicable to Arjuna is as follows.

a. Pandu Putra = Son of Pandu.
b. Subadhra Pati = Husband of Subadhra, ister of Lord Krishna.
c. Avatara of Indra
d. Kunti putra
e. gAndivadhanudhari = Possessor of gandiva.
f. savyasAchin = Can ht targets even with left hand.
g. Bhimasenasya Sahodara = Brother of Bhima.
h. Shri Krishnasya prasaAda yogya = Qualified for Shri hari’s blessings.
i. Sacipati = Husband of Saci Devi.
j. UthhamAdhikari = Specially ordained great person.
k. Kurunandana, MahAbAhu Arjuna = Doing always proper deeds.

3. saMbhAvitasya: By this word, Shri krishna reminds Arjuna what happened to his Guru (Sati Devi, wife of Mahadeva) earlier.

yadi vrajiṣyasyatihāya mad-vaco bhadraḿ bhavatyā na tato bhaviṣyati
sambhāvitasya sva-janāpavādaH sadā sa sadyo maraṇāya kalpate (Bhagavatam 4:3:25)

Mahadeva advised ‘Satidevi’ at the time of Yajna by Daksha, not to go there and she wil not be cared for by anyone. Further Rudra Deva will be insulted and as a dutiful wife, she will be very much upset. ‘Death is preferable to dishonor’ will happen [sambhāvitasya].

Death will bring temporary loss, but dishnor or disrespect will bring permanent loss.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.35

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भयात् रणात् उपरतं मंस्यंते त्वां महारथाः
यॆषां च त्वं बहुमतः भूत्वा यास्यसि लाघवम् ॥ २.३५ ॥

ಭಯಾತ್ ರಣಾತ್ ಉಪರತಂ ಮಂಸ್ಯಂತೆ ತ್ವಾಂ ಮಹಾರಥಾಃ
ಯೇಷಾಂ ಚ ತ್ವಂ ಬಹುಮತಃ ಭೂತ್ವಾ ಯಾಸ್ಯಸಿ ಲಾಘವಮ್ || ೨.೩೫ ||

bhayAt raNAt uparataM maMsyaMte tvAM mahArathAH
yEShAM cha tvaM bahumataH bhUtvA yAsyasi lAghavam || 2.35 ||

The mahArathAs will think that you have withdrawn from the battle out of fear; and for those who have held you in great esteem, you will fall into disgrace.

1. Arjuna raises a point that if he retires from war out of mercy, there is nothing bad about it. Lord Krishna emphasises that it will be NOT construed so and the shame that he will undergo is explained in this verse.

2. By the word mahArathAH , Lord Krishna reminds Arjuna that Karna has a special grudge against Arjuna. When Pandavas restricted their bonafide claim to a lesser extent of five villages, instead of 50% of the kingdom and courted peace in the country, at that time Duryodhana and Krna laughed at Pandavas thinking they are cowards and that they are afraid of war. Further they thought that Arjuna and Bhima were lesser warriors than Karna and Duryodhana respectively because of which Pandavas are begging for lesser compromising terms.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.36

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अवाच्य वादान् च बहून् वादिष्यन्ति तव अहिताः
निन्दन्तः तव सामर्थ्यं ततः दुःखतरं नु किम् ॥ २.३६ ॥

ಅವಾಚ್ಯ ವಾದಾನ್ ಚ ಬಹೂನ್ ವಾದಿಷ್ಯಂತಿ ತವ ಅಹಿತಾಃ
ನಿಂದಂತಃ ತವ ಸಾಮರ್ಥ್ಯಂ ತತಃ ದುಃಖತರಂ ನು ಕಿಮ್ || ೨.೩೬ ||

avAchya vAdAn cha bahUn vAdiShyaMti tava ahitAH
niMdaMtaH tava sAmarthyaM tataH duHkhataraM nu kim || 2.36 ||

Your enemies will utter many reproaches un-worthy to be spoken, slandering your prowess and ability; what could possibly be more painful than that?

1. In verse 2:34 it was told that shame and dishonor is worse than death.

2. In verse 2:35 it was to that it was even more shameful to be dishonored by great warriors who held ARjuna in high esteem.

3. In this verse, 2:36, it is shown that slander of enemies is the zenith of dishonor.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.37

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हतॊ वा प्राप्स्यसि स्वर्गं जित्वा वा भॊक्ष्यसॆ महीम्
तस्मात् उत्तिष्ठ कौन्तॆय युद्धाय कृतनिश्चयः ॥ २.३७ ॥

ಹತೋ ವಾ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಸ್ಯಸಿ ಸ್ವರ್ಗಂ ಜಿತ್ವಾ ವಾ ಭೋಕ್ಷ್ಯಸೇ ಮಹೀಮ್
ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಉತ್ತಿಷ್ಠ ಕೌಂತೇಯ ಯುದ್ಧಾಯ ಕೃತನಿಶ್ಚಯಃ || ೨.೩೭ ||

hatO vA prApsyasi swargaM jitvA vA bhOkShyasE maheem
tasmAt uttiShTha kauMtEya yuddhAya kRutanishchayaH || 2.37 ||

If slain, you will attain swarga, if victorious you will enjoy the earth; therefore O Kunti’s son, standup with the determination to fight

kauMtEya hataH vA swargaM prApsyasi

Oh Son of Kunti, if yo die in battle you will attain Swarga.

jitvA vA maheem bhOkShyasE

If you win the battle you will get the land here (and later Swarga also) and its pleasures.

tasmAt yuddhAya kRutanishchayaH uttiShTha

Therefore, having prepared for waging war, rise up and be prepared.

Points:

{b}1. Gita Vivriti

Sri mantralaya Prabhu raises a doubt when the verse is read as it is. It may lead to absurdity also.

a. If you win, you get this world and itspleasures.

b. If you are defeated you get Swarga. This seems to be the meaning when it is read as it is.

In such a case, the happiness in Swarga is much more with respect to time and quality and status. Hence victory shuts the door of heavenly gates. So defeat becomes more covetable than success.

For this Vivriti explains

Victory not only gets lands now, bit also Swarga later.

2. This verse answers three objections raised earlier and is all comprehensive.

a. In verse 2:6, Arjuna discouraged war , since if war was fought he was not sure of success.

Assuming success will not be gained, this verse states that there is no need to lament as Swarga will be attained by Arjuna.

b. In verse 2:7, Arjuna expressed to Shri Krishna his utter inability to take decision, begged Him to guide Arjuna about the proper course to be taken.

In this verse Shri Hari guides Arjuna to fight the war and reveals His Will.

c. In verse 2:8, Arjuna states that though he may get sovereignity of Earth and heavenly royalty of Gods, still he desists from war because he was unable to bear and face the sorrow.

This verse 2:37 says tasmAt = therefore.

As Shri Krishna has given all reasons and authorities for Arjuna not to feel sorrow or grief, Arjuna has no ground to feel grief and has no basis to reject Earthly and Heavenly bliss.

3. Advaita schools says that this war was to be fought keeping in mind Swarga and Kingdom. Hence Lord Krishna approves Kamya karma and not doing this will result in sin.

But non-performance of Kamya larmas does NOT lead to sin. However in verse 2:33 clearly say that the result of not waging this dharmic war is sin.

atha chEt tvaM imaM dharmyaM saMgrAmaM na kariShyasi
tataH swadharmaM keertiM cha hitvA pApaM avApsyasi || 2.33 ||

For this advaitists contend that if after staring Kamya Karma, it is NOT finished, it leads to sin. However the war has NOT started yet. Hence this explanation is not correct. Arjuna could have withdrawn from war.

Srimad Acharya quotes an authority from Sruti Apastamba to the effect that if a tree be grown for its fruits, it incidentally gives us shade also. On this analogy, there is no loss of dharma or sin is not accrued if duties are done in selfless spirit and it incidentally brings in rewards, which are unsought. Thus the throne and heaven indicated here are incidental rewards which the Lord points out. But the blissful great Shri Hari has never committed Himself here that these rewards are themselves to be aspired for.

Every duty can be done in selfless spirit or with selfish motives. Bhima fought and killed Jarasandha and offered to Shri Krishna as an Yajna offering, but getting Magadha kingdom is only a byproduct.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.38

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सुख दुःखॆ समॆ कृत्वा लाभ-अलाभौ जय-अजयौ
ततः युद्धाय युज्यस्व न एवं पापं अवाप्स्यसि ॥ २.३८ ॥

ಸುಖ ದುಃಖೇ ಸಮೇ ಕೃತ್ವಾ ಲಾಭ-ಅಲಾಭೌ ಜಯ-ಅಜಯೌ
ತತಃ ಯುದ್ಧಾಯ ಯುಜ್ಯಸ್ವ ನ ಏವಂ ಪಾಪಂ ಅವಾಪ್ಸ್ಯಸಿ || ೨.೩೮ ||

sukha duHkhE samE kRutvA lAbha-alAbhau jaya-ajayau
tataH yuddhAya yujyasva na EvaM pApaM avApsyasi || 2.38 ||

Considering pleasure and pain, gain and loss, victory and defeat as equal, prepare yourself for battle; thereby you shall not incur sin at all.

Having shunned the passion for pleasure, etc, and considering this natural duty to be the worship of Lord, you should make yourself ready for the battle.

Fighting with the belief that it is your own proper duty, and with devotion to the glorious Lord, you shall not be committing any sin; merit alone will accrue to you.

sukha duHkhE samE kRutvA = Treating sensual happiness opposed to Moksha and as equally an obstacle for Moksha as sorrow is an obstacle. It does NOT mean treating sensual happiness and spain as equal.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.39

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एषा तॆ अभिहिता सांख्यॆ बुद्धिः यॊगॆ तु इमां शृणु
बुद्ध्या युक्त्यः यया पार्थ कर्मबंधं प्रहास्यसि ॥ २.३९ ॥

ಏಷಾ ತೇ ಅಭಿಹಿತಾ ಸಾಂಖ್ಯೇ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಯೋಗೇ ತು ಇಮಾಂ ಶೃಣು
ಬುದ್ಧ್ಯಾ ಯುಕ್ತ್ಯಃ ಯಯಾ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಕರ್ಮಬಂಧಂ ಪ್ರಹಾಸ್ಯಸಿ || ೨.೩೯ ||

EShA tE abhihitA sAMkhyE buddhiH yOgE tu imAM shRuNu
buddhyA yuktyaH yayA pArtha karmabaMdhaM prahAsyasi || 2.39 ||

This knowledge in respect of sAnkhya has been imparted to you, and in respect of yoga too, listen to this, O Partha; imbued with this knowledge, you shall cast away the bonds of karma.

O Partha, the forgoing discourse has been held in order to give you knowledge of the nature of the soul as well as of the God. Now as a means of gaining that knowledge, you shall listen to the ensuing exposition.

Some explanation is needed for this verse. I made a mistake in not referring to another part of the book.

1. sAMkhyaM = JnAnaM = Knowledge about jIva and Brahma.

This is explained from 2:12-38 in Gita. It does NOT refer to the system of Kapila, popularly known as Sankya.

yOgaH = upAyaH = means of securing such a knowledge.

This is explained from 2:45 to the end of sixth chapter. This word does NOT refer to Patanjali’s system.

The means of securing knowledge is of two kinds.

a.) nishkAmakarma (bahiH sAdanaM):

This is taught from 2:45 to end of fifth chapter.

b.) dhyAnayOgaH (antharaMga sAdanaM):

This is explained in the sixth chapter.

2. buddhiH: Generally buddhi means knowledge. But in Gita it means ‘sentences or words which generate or convey knowledge’.

[pArtha !] sAMkhyE EShA buddhiH tE abhihitA | yOgE tu imAM shRuNu

Oh son of Kunti, thus far (2:12-38) words spoken about Swarupa knowledge of jIva and Brahma have been told to you. Now in order to know the means listen to Me.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.40

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न इह अभिक्रम नाशः अस्ति प्रत्यवायः न विद्यतॆ ।
स्वल्पं अपि अस्य धर्मस्य त्रायतॆ महतः भयात् ॥ २.४० ॥

ನ ಇಹ ಅಭಿಕ್ರಮ ನಾಶಃ ಅಸ್ತಿ ಪ್ರತ್ಯವಾಯಃ ನ ವಿದ್ಯತೇ |
ಸ್ವಲ್ಪಂ ಅಪಿ ಅಸ್ಯ ಧರ್ಮಸ್ಯ ತ್ರಾಯತೇ ಮಹತಃ ಭಯಾತ್ || ೨.೪೦ ||

na iha abhikrama nAshaH asti pratyavAyaH na vidyatE |
svalpaM api asya dharmasya trAyatE mahataH bhayAt || 2.40 ||

There is no loss of endeavor here (in the matter of duties which are about to be taught under the name of yoga); there arises no evil; even a little of this duty saves man from great fear (any small act of duty to God is sure to lift one from the great fear of mundane bondage)

iha abhikramanAshaH na asti

For jnAnOpAya, that is, doing duty without aspiring for the fruit or result (nishkAmakarma), which is going to be taught, there is no loss if begun.

pratyavAyaH na vidyatE

If such a thing is stopped without completion, then there will not any sin or disaster.

asya dharmasya svalpaMapi mahataH bhayAt trAyatE

Even adoption of this nishkAmakarma to a negligible extent, will save one from the great fear of samsAra.

Points:

1. Agneya Purana is quoted by Acharya. I will just give translation here.

In respect of Vishnu dharma, that is nishkAmakarma, even if begun or even if there is a desire to begin, it would bring a lot of virtue. It is NOt like other actions where the fruit of actions one gets only after completion of action. Thi is the case with all worldly works.

Even if one desires to read Acharya’s works it will bring a lot of virtue.

2. What is meant by nishkAmakarma? non-result oriented activity.

It rests on thorough self-surrender, on an implicit trust in Shri Hari, on full realization of His absolute supremacy (as per one’s capacity) and on the jIva’s utter dependence on Him.

3. abhikrama = ArOhana = ascent

Ascending to heights is NOT lost in this Karma yOga. A pilgrim on the path of Vishnu dharma is ever on the ascent, going steadily higher and higher and never falls.

abhikrama = stepping forward

Like a brave soldier who paces even onward and turns not his back, a Karma Yogin steadily paces forward and his progression is assured. No retrogression takes place.

abhikrama = war or battle

The meaning is that karma yoga does NOT entail abandonment of war.

4. asya dharmasya

The word asya=This, but here it means belonging to Vishnu. By this understanding it is made clear that Karma Yoga is Vishnu Dharma. The Sanskrit letter “a” in asya here refers to Vishnu.

5. dharmasya means yamasya

By dharma is meant yama. Though ths nishkAmakarma is done only a little, it exonerates one from the fear of death.

The best example is the story of Ajamila in Bhagavatam. By calling with great devotion to Shri Hari with the Sabda Narayana, the messenders of Yama were cleared off by servants of Shri Hari.

6. svalpaMapi asya dharmasya Even a little done should be Vishnu dharma, which means it should be out of great devotion to Vishnu and understanding His supremacy and independence and at the same time experiencing the utter dependency and helplessness of jIva.

7. Srimad Bhagavatam 6:2:14

sāńketyaḿ pārihāsyaḿ vā stobhaḿ helanameva vā
vaikuṇṭha-nāma-grahaṇam aśesa agha-haram viduḥ

Wise say to utter the name of Vaikuntha conventionally or in joke or without any purpose or in ridicule is the cure of the sins.

The above verse in Bhagavatam should NOT be taken literally. It simply shows the indispensable act of uttering HIS names.

Otherwise asuras like Sishupala, Duryodhana etc. should have attained moksha. Making jokes or ridiculing His names are very disastrous and sinful. Hence uttering His names out of devotion will clear our sins.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.41

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व्यवसाय आत्मिका बुद्धिः एक इह कुरुनंदन ।
बहुशाखा हि अनंताः च बुद्धयः अव्यवसायिनाम् ॥ २.४१ ॥

ವ್ಯವಸಾಯ ಆತ್ಮಿಕಾ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಏಕ ಇಹ ಕುರುನಂದನ |
ಬಹುಶಾಖಾ ಹಿ ಅನಂತಾಃ ಚ ಬುದ್ಧಯಃ ಅವ್ಯವಸಾಯಿನಾಮ್ || ೨.೪೧ ||

vyavasAya AtmikA buddhiH Eka iha kurunaMdana |
bahushAkhA hi anaMtAH cha buddhayaH avyavasAyinAm || 2.41 ||

O delight of the Kurus, the teaching which forms the true conclusion here is but one; whereas, the teachings of those who have not come to the true conclusion are many branched and endless.

1. In the earlier verse, it was stated by Shri Krishna to Arjuna to listen to His instruction regarding the methods or means of obtaining knowledge.

But then there are several conflicting expositions of what constitutes the true means of knowledge of Ishwara and their implementation in action – yOga, due to divergent opinion of thinkers. So how can I pin my faith on Your words alone as against the rest?

To the above imaginary question that could be raised by Arjuna, Shri Krishna says

‘The teachings which embodies the true conclusions is only one. Though different thinkers are satisfied that theirs is the right view of the means of JnAnam, it is to be noted that all opinions which have been irrefragably established on sound pramAnas should confirm to single pattern and be uniform with one another’

2. kurunaMdana ! iha vyavasAyAtmikA buddhiH Eka Eva

Oh ! giver of happiness to Kuru dynasty, in this world (or in Vedas) that which is supported or established by impeachable authorities, such words are only ONE. There is no doubt.

avyavasAyinAm buddhayaH bahushAkhAH

But those not determined by valid authorities, are many having many branches.

anaMtAH cha

They are many. (antaH na = Not established by authorities. They are NOT Vaidika or not having concurrence of Vedas.)

hi = Ths is the fundamental truth.

3. Some of the points to be noted from this verse.

(a.) Truth is single and uniform.

(b. ) Truthful sciences are never in conflict.

(c. ) Untested and unauthoritative tecahings are only diverse and are manifold.

(d. ) The conflict is NOT between ‘Karma Yoga’ and ‘Kamya Karma’ in particular, but between truthful and untruthful systems o thought.

(e. ) The reply given by Shri Krishna is of Universal application holding good in the Vedic religion and philosophy, so also in worldly matters.

vyavasAyAtmikA buddhiH Ekeha means ‘In Vedic and orldly matters, the teaching that is tested is ONE and uniform.’

4. Suming up Srimad Acharya and authority for this.

(i) The minds of all true devotess who are guided by reason, are bound to run in one groove, the goal being salvation by the worship of Shri Vishnu.

(ii) Al of them, when properly intructed choose Vishnu and engage only in His worship with respect.

(iii) It is only the unbelievers that will take desirous and diverse courses.

(iv) Please forgive me if I made any errors in Typing this Sanskrit Verse from Brahma Vaivarta Purana quoted by Srimad Acharya.The actual Sanskrit verse can be seen from the above link.

buddhirnirnotatatvAnAM Eka vishnuparAyaNA
bahushAkhAH hi anantAshcha buddhayOavyavasAyinAm

The belief of those whose conviction is settled in one-pointed sheltering is Vishnu. The belief of unbelievers are many branched and endless.

5. buddhiH = Teaching in this context and NOT intellect.

iha = Not only Vedas, but also human compositions which are valid, powrusheya gramthas or agamas

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.42 – 2.44

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यां इमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदंति अविपश्चितः ।
वॆदवादरताः पार्थ न अन्यत् अस्ति इति वादिनः ॥ २.४२ ॥

काम-आत्मनः स्वर्ग-परः जन्म-कर्म-फलप्रदम् ।
क्रिया-विशॆष-बहुलां भॊग-ऐश्वर्य-गतिं प्रति ॥ २.४३ ॥

भॊग-ऐश्वर्य प्रसक्तानां तया अपहृत-चॆतसाम् ।
व्यवसाय-आत्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयतॆ ॥ २.४४ ॥

ಯಾಂ ಇಮಾಂ ಪುಷ್ಪಿತಾಂ ವಾಚಂ ಪ್ರವದಂತಿ ಅವಿಪಶ್ಚಿತಃ |
ವೇದವಾದರತಾಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ನ ಅನ್ಯತ್ ಅಸ್ತಿ ಇತಿ ವಾದಿನಃ || ೨.೪೨ ||

ಕಾಮ-ಆತ್ಮನಃ ಸ್ವರ್ಗ-ಪರಃ ಜನ್ಮ-ಕರ್ಮ-ಫಲಪ್ರದಮ್ |
ಕ್ರಿಯಾ-ವಿಶೇಷ-ಬಹುಲಾಂ ಭೋಗ-ಐಶ್ವರ್ಯ-ಗತಿಂ ಪ್ರತಿ || ೨.೪೩ ||

ಭೋಗ-ಐಶ್ವರ್ಯ ಪ್ರಸಕ್ತಾನಾಂ ತಯಾ ಅಪಹೃತ-ಚೇತಸಾಮ್ |
ವ್ಯವಸಾಯ-ಆತ್ಮಿಕಾ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಸಮಾಧೌ ನ ವಿಧೀಯತೇ || ೨.೪೪ ||

yAM imAM puShpitAM vAchaM pravadaMti avipashchitaH |
vEdavAdaratAH pArtha na anyat asti iti vAdinaH || 2.42 ||

kAma-AtmanaH swarga-paraH janma-karma-phalapradam |
kriyA-vishESha-bahulAM bhOga-aishvarya-gatiM prati || 2.43 ||

bhOga-aishvarya prasaktAnAM tayA apahRuta-chEtasAm |
vyavasAya-AtmikA buddhiH samAdhau na vidheeyatE || 2.44 ||

The opinions of those who are not resolute are contrary to the Vedic scriptures; but the summations of those who are resolute possessing spiritual intelligence are never contrary to the Vedic scriptures. Arjuna may query why the Supreme Lord speaks about things providing pleasures of heaven, this is clarified by the Supreme Lord in this verse. In verse 42 beginning yAm to the word taya in verse 44 it can be ascertained that if salvation is the fruit then any heavenly pleasures are merely the flowers.

Those who revel only in the words of the Vedas are known as Vedavada ratah. They speak only of reveling in the pleasures derived from actions. Those who speak about the Vedas in expectation of fruits are said to revel therein and thus they are motivated by desire.

The essence and the objective of the Vedic scriptures is knowledge of the Ultimate, which is the Supreme Lord, who is very pleased by those who are devoted to Him. The instructions and injunctions within the Vedic scriptures should be known to be applicable solely to the Supreme Lord and no other.

It is the knowledge of the Supreme Lord that is to be sought and understood. This is what is to be achieved by all living entities to make their life in the material existence successful.

In reference to those pursuing the goals of opulence and pleasure and in reference to the means of acquiring those fruits thereof, these vedavada ratahs declare that this is knowledge of Vedanta. For these persons spiritual intelligence and comprehensive discrimination does not manifest itself in the form of an equinanimous intellect.

Only those in whom spiritual intelligence has awakened have comprehensive knowledge of the Supreme Lord and the total satisfaction of mind and senses that accompanies it. Verily this is the means for salvation. It is also specifically mentioned in the Srimad Bhagavatam known also as the Bhagavat Purana.

Points:

1. The three verses should be read together. They highlight the the school of ‘Mimamsakas’, who accept the authority of Vedas but conclude that doing karma is the main theme of Vedas and that ‘Swarga’ is the main goal.

In the last verse verse it was pointed out that vyavasAya AtmikA buddhiH Eka iha kurunaMdana which means that truthful systems of thought are bound to be in agreement and uniform. Practically this approved system is one which has ‘Vedas’ as the base and condemned those opposed to Vedas.

No coming to the very Vedas, among the followers of Vedas themselves, there is no uniformity and there is difference. For example an important section gives supremacy to ‘sacrificial rites’ only.

The goal of Mimamsakas (school of Jaimini) is only to do Yaga, Yagna, and other rites which give temporal results like ‘Swarga’. The above three verses are aimed at condemning such schools of thought. These persons are no doubt Vedic adherents in letter, but not in spirit. They are only concerned with chanting Vedic mantras and doing number of rituals, ceremonies and all done with selfish motives to attain pleasure and pleasure only.

They do not truly believe in Narayana nor do they believe in such a thing as salvation (Moksha). They deny these and discuss ad-infinitum Vedic texts of ritualism, attracted by their flowery words.

pArtha vEdavAdaratAH avipashchitaH anyat na asti vAdinaH

Oh Kunti’s son,

(i) Those who only read the Vedas outwardly without going in-depth to understand the spirit and substance nd enjoy mere Karmas.

(ii) Denying the Mahimas of Vishnu declared in the Vedas.

(iii) Without understanding the meaning of the Vedas, but merely chanting the same, thereby not understanding the proper spirit and meaning of the Vedas and concluding there is no Moksha (or not understanding the Swarupa of Vishnu as taight in the Vedas) and preaching the same.

vEdavAdaratAH = Mimamsakas.

They are NOT Vaidikas, but only VaidikAbAsAH

kAma-AtmanaH swarga-paraH janma-karma-phalapradam kriyA-vishESha-bahulAM

Having their mind only in the worldly happiness temporal enjoyments and having as their motto and final goal as Swarga alone, indulge in activities which often give rise to birth and death.

yAMimAM puShpitAM vAchaM bhOga-aishvarya-gatiM prati

Leaving off or abandoning the fruits of Moksha and and aspiring for Swrga which is like a flower and talking about such pleasure and enjoyment.

tayA apahRuta-chEtasAm bhOga-aishvarya prasaktAnAM vyavasAya-AtmikA buddhiH samAdhau na vidheeyatE

Having been attracted and covered by such words and interested in temporal enjoyment and happiness, they are unable to understand that the knowledge supported by valid authorities is only to place our minds in Shri Vishnu and thereby attain His grace and consequently Moksha.

2. ParokshavishayAH vEdAH: Mimamsakas fail to understand that the Vedas have esoteric (hidden meaning) subject matter. The Vedas speak everywhere of the supreme Lord, Vishnu only, for the most part in esoteric language. Hencethey are known as ParokshavishayAH vEdAH. We also find this stated in ‘ParokshapriyAH iva hi devAH’- the devas take delight in hidden meanings.

Mahavaraha Purana states

mukhyam cha sarvavEdAnAM tAtparyaM shripatEH paraM |
uthkarshE tu tadanyatra tAtparyaM syAt avAntaram

The great and primary purport of all the Vedas is the greatness of Shripathi. Their reference to other matters is only secondary.

Mimamsakas have totally forgotten this.

The most inportant verse from Bhagavatam on this issue is 11:21:43

māḿ vidhatte ‘bhidhatte māḿ vikalpyāpohyate tvaham
etāvān sarva-vedārthaḥ śabda āsthāya māḿ bhidām
māyā-mātram anūdyānte pratiṣidhya prasīdati

This is a clear answer to Mimamsakas. It is of greatest help to the Vedants as to how the Vedas are to be understood.

These are the glorious words of Shri Krishna to Uddhava

The Mandatory texts of the Vedas prescribe sacrifices as My worship. The hymns in praise of Indra and others (devatas) are primarily addressed to Me.

Scriptures enjoins duteies as My worship; uses Indra and other names as my appellation; the texts that prescribe as well as those that prohibit acts, point to Me. So, of such statements, none oher than Myself can understand the true meaning.

This establishes clearly that all Sabdas in the Vedas primarily denote only the Lord. He is the main subject and theme of all the Vedas.

3. Om Tat samanvayAt Om (Brahma Sutra 1:1:4)

Also the above sutra from Brahma Sutras refutes Mimamsakas.

The word saM in samanvayat is to be noted. The purpose of the sutra would be enough if it had read Om Tat anvayAt Om. There may not have been any need for saM here.

Several important reasons have been given for explaining the criteria for ‘saM’ in the sutra. The Mimamsakas believe that all of the Vedas do not speak of Vishnu. Only the portions called Upanishads does so. Remaining part of the Vedas, namely karma kanda and Devata kanda do not speak of Vishny according to them.

To refute them, the sabda ‘saM’ is used in the sutra to establish that all portions of Vedas, every letter, every word, every sentence talk about the glory of Vishnu.

vEdavAdaratAH:

Acharya gives three meanings fo rthis word.

1. Those who revel in the apparent meaning of the Vedic texts ignorant of the hidden meaning.

2. Those who dispute the authority of Upanishads in the Vedas.

3. Those who merely recite Vedic mantras like a parrot without knowing its hidden meanings.

Sri Madhva completely denies the artificial division of Vedas into Karma kanda, upAsana kanda and Jnanakanda.

samAdhau = Letting the mind attain peace by trustful reliance on Shri Hari. ‘sama’ is Bhagavan Shri Hari. In Him let the mind rest.

puShpitAM vAchaM = flowery language:

The metaphor ‘flower’ is significant here. We value the fruit more than a flower. A flower looks and smells good, but it never nourishes our body.

arjuna vEdAH traiguNya viShayAH

Arjuna (known for doing pure deeds), Vedas speak of Swarga and other temporal results only, connected to matter (Satwa, Rajas and Tamas), when superficially seen.

Meanings of the word traiguNya:

(a.) It means Swarga for the performers of Vedic rituals.

(b.) It also means samsAra.

Meanings of the word viShayAH:

(a.) The word viShayAH according to Acharya means superficial subject matter and NOT karma kanda or NOT just subject matter.

(b.) Another meaning of the word viShayAH is that which banishes (yAH means banishes) poison (viSha)

nistraiguNyaH bhava = Swarga and others which are products of these triple gunas, should be avoided. (Arjuna, you have to be far away from these).

This means one should not concentrate his mind on superficial goals like Swarga etc., but one should concentrate on Moksha abd Swarupa of Lord Vishnu.

nirdvaMdvaH = Equanimity of mind when happiness and sorrow comes.

nityasatvasthaH = Always reside in the company of good persons who meditate on Lord Vishnu (which implies that you do always meditate on Lord Vishnu).

Here Satva means Lord Vishnu Himself.

AtmavAn = Always aware and vigilant that Paramatma is his master and remembering Him so always.

niryOgakShEmaH =Be far way from the forbidden.

yOgaH means that which is NOT got is obtained or achieved.

kShEmaH is protecting what is obtained already.

Here not only what is forbidden by Shastras is to be left off, but also the desire connected with it is to be abandoned.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.45

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त्रैगुण्य विषयाः वॆदाः निस्त्रैगुण्यः भव अर्जुन ।
निर्द्वन्द्वः नित्य-सत्त्व-स्थः निर्यॊगक्षॆमः आत्मवान् ॥ २.४५ ॥

ತ್ರೈಗುಣ್ಯ ವಿಷಯಾಃ ವೇದಾಃ ನಿಸ್ತ್ರೈಗುಣ್ಯಃ ಭವ ಅರ್ಜುನ |
ನಿರ್ದ್ವಂದ್ವಃ ನಿತ್ಯಸತ್ವಸ್ಥಃ ನಿರ್ಯೋಗಕ್ಷೇಮಃ ಆತ್ಮವಾನ್ || ೨.೪೫ ||

traiguNya viShayAH vEdAH nistraiguNyaH bhava arjuna |
nirdvaMdvaH nityasatvasthaH niryOgakShEmaH AtmavAn || 2.45 ||

The Vedas seem to speak of what pertains to the three qualities (Satva, Rajas, Tamas); O Arjuna, get yourself free from the effect of the three qualities; stand aloof from the pairs of opposites; always take your stand on the Eternally Excellent; be free from the cares of gain and security; and ever have the Lord with you.

The Vedas when superficially understood seem to speak of duties which yield swarga and other paltry wishes. One should not be misled by what the Vedas casually seem to convey. Arjuna is thus advised to withdraw himself from the pursuit of those fruits which the three qualities may bear, and to give his attention to the deeper sense of the Vedas.

traiguNya = the effect produced by the three guNas – satva, rajas and tamas (like swarga and other desires) = mundane bondage which is again the effect of the three guNas

dvaMdva = pairs of pleasure & pain, gain & loss, victory & defeat, exhilaration & dejection

nitya sattva sthaH = Think of the Eternally pure Lord every moment

AtmavAn = he who is constantly mindful that the supreme Lord Hari is the master

yoga = acquisition of that which is not already possessed

kShEmaH = securing what is acquired and possessed

The Vedas counteract the effect of the poison called “samsAra” which is the effect of the three qualities. i.e., the Vedas mainly deal with the explanation of the nature of the Supreme Being and the knowledge that leads to final beatitude. Arjuna is here asked to follow this true spirit of Vedas and not be led astray by the superficial contents of the Vedas.

The glorious Lord alone forms the teaching and spirit of the Vedas, but not the rites and ceremonies calculated to accomplish paltry desires. Having abandoned such actions, constantly remember and contemplate the Supreme Lord as the omnipresent and perfect in all attributes, and as the master of the self.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.46

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यावान् अर्थः उदपानॆ सर्वतः सम्प्लुत-उदकॆ ।
तावान् सर्वॆषु वॆदॆषु ब्राह्मणस्य विजानतः ॥ २.४६ ॥

ಯಾವಾನ್ ಅರ್ಥಃ ಉದಪಾನೇ ಸರ್ವತಃ ಸಂಪ್ಲುತ-ಉದಕೇ |
ತಾವಾನ್ ಸರ್ವೇಷು ವೇದೇಷು ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮಣಸ್ಯ ವಿಜಾನತಃ || ೨.೪೬ ||

yAvAn arthaH udapAnE sarvataH saMpluta-udakE |
tAvAn sarvEShu vEdEShu brAhmaNasya vijAnataH || 2.46 |
|

What purpose is realized in a wide expanse of water on all sides, that purpose is realized (to that extent) in a well; In the same manner, what purpose is realized through all the Vedas, that purpose, to that extent is realized by the learned man who sees the Brahman.

(The results of fruit of wisdom are like waters of the ocean of great immensity; whereas the results obtained by performing kAmya karma are very limited like water in a well.)

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.47

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कर्मणि एव अधिकारः तॆ मा फलॆषु कदाचन ।
मा कर्मफलहॆतुः भूः मा तॆ संगः अस्तु अकर्मणि ॥

ಕರ್ಮಣಿ ಏವ ಅಧಿಕಾರಃ ತೇ ಮಾ ಫಲೇಷು ಕದಾಚನ |
ಮಾ ಕರ್ಮಫಲಹೇತುಃ ಭೂಃ ಮಾ ತೇ ಸಂಗಃ ಅಸ್ತು ಅಕರ್ಮಣಿ ||

karmaNi Eva adhikAraH tE mA phalEShu kadAchana |
mA karmaphalahEtuH bhUH mA tE saMgaH astu akarmaNi || 2.47 ||

Only in respect of action there is eligibility in you; never in respect of its fruits; so do not make fruit as a motive for your action; nor let there be any attachment to inaction (do not omit your duties) on your part

karmaNi Eva adhikAraH = Arjuna, for you and others eligibility is there only to do Karmas.

phalEShu kadAchana mA = But never for the fruits or results.

karmaphalahEtuH mA bhUH = Therefore do not do actions or duties only having results or fruits in your mind.

Then it may appear that doing karma is redundant or useless. It is not so, because

tE akarmaNi saMgaH mA astu = For you and others let there not be any attachment in doing karmas.

In other words, one gets aparoksha Jnana and then Moksha when ones does nishkama karma.

Points:

1. Why this verse?

In verses 2:42-44 criticism is made on those who do their karmas by having the result only in their minds. But in Vedas, ‘the desire’ for the fruits is also indicated or included along with injunctions.

‘The aspirant for heaven shall perform a sacrifice.’

So to rebut this, the present verse is begun.

The performance of act alone comes under the purview of the injunction and never the fruits.

2. tE = This word not only stands for Arjuna, but for all. Since Arjuna who is a jnani himself is advised to give up desires, it is applicable even more for non-jnanis like us.

3. The real purport of fruits mentioned in Vedas.

There is no conflict between what Shri Krishna says in this verse and Vedas. This has to be properly understood.

vedoktameva kurvāṇah niḥsańgorpitamīśvare |
naiṣkarmyaḿ labhate siddhiḿ rocanārthā phala-śrutiḥ || (Bhagavatam 11:3:46)

wihch says that fruits are mentioned in Vedas to create zest or create interest in the performer of sacrifice.

phala-śrutiriyaḿ nṝṇāḿ na śreyo rocanaḿ param |
śreyo-vivakṣayā proktaḿ yathā bhaiṣajya-rocanam || (11:21:23)

The real intention of the Sruti, (like ‘Let him who desires a heaven perform a sacrifuce’) is simply that one (already with a desire for heaven) shall perform the sacrifice and not that one shall imbibe a desire for heaven and then offer a sacrifice.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.48

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यॊगस्थः कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनञ्जय
सिद्धि-असिद्ध्यॊः समः भूत्वा समत्वं यॊग उच्यतॆ ॥ २.४८ ॥

ಯೋಗಸ್ಥಃ ಕುರು ಕರ್ಮಾಣಿ ಸಂಗಂ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಧನಂಜಯ
ಸಿದ್ಧಿ-ಅಸಿದ್ಧ್ಯೋಃ ಸಮಃ ಭೂತ್ವಾ ಸಮತ್ವಂ ಯೋಗ ಉಚ್ಯತೇ || ೨.೪೮ ||

yOgasthaH kuru karmANi saMgaM tyaktvA dhanaMjaya
siddhi-asiddhyOH samaH bhUtvA samatvaM yOga uchyatE || 2.48 ||

O Dhananjaya, taking your stand on Yoga do your duties, renouncing attachments, being alike (identical) in success and failure; this state, of being alike (attended with renunciation) is called Yoga.

Renouncing attachment to the fruits of the duties performed, and thereby being equally unaffected by success or failure, do your duties as a means to get God’s grace.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.49

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दूरॆण हि अवरं कर्म बुद्धि-यॊगात् धनञ्जय ।
बुद्धौ शरणं अन्विच्छ कृपणाः फलहॆतवः ॥ २.४९ ॥

ದೂರೇಣ ಹಿ ಅವರಂ ಕರ್ಮ ಬುದ್ಧಿ-ಯೋಗಾತ್ ಧನಂಜಯ |
ಬುದ್ಧೌ ಶರಣಂ ಅನ್ವಿಚ್ಛ ಕೃಪಣಾಃ ಫಲಹೇತವಃ || ೨.೪೯ ||

dUrENa hi avaraM karma buddhi-yOgAt dhanaMjaya |
buddhau sharaNaM anvicCha kRupaNAH phalahEtavaH || 2.49 ||

O Dhananjaya, far far inferior indeed is Karma to Knowledge as a means; take refuge in knowledge; pitiable are they who have a motive for their action.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.50

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ಬುದ್ಧಿ ಯುಕ್ತಃ ಜಹಾತಿ ಇಹ ಉಭೇ ಸುಕೃತ-ದುಷ್ಕೃತೇ |
ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಯೋಗಾಯ ಯುಜ್ಯಸ್ವ ಯೋಗಃ ಕರ್ಮಸು ಕೌಶಲಮ್ || ೨.೫೦ ||

बुद्धि युक्तः जहाति इह उभॆ सुकृत दुष्कृतॆ ।
तस्मात् यॊगाय युज्यस्व यॊगः कर्मसु कौशलम् ॥ २.५० ॥

buddhi yuktaH jahAti iha ubhE sukRuta-duShkRutE |
tasmAt yOgAya yujyasva yOgaH karmasu kaushalam || 2.50 ||

With knowledge [of God] he casts off both good and evil deeds; therefore exert yourself for the yoga (means of knowledge), for, the yoga is the most efficacious in midst of duties.

Of merits, the Wiseguy allows perishing all that which leads to birth & death and other undesirable results, but he does not allow perishing whatever merit resulting from meditation; whereas he casts off absolutely all demerits. So Arjuna is asked to walk in the path of knowledge and spare no effort in that direction.

The Yoga, that is, duties done for the sake of Lord’s grace with the knowledge of His greatness and without longing for any fruits, is really a skill in the performance of duties, as it leads to everlasting consequence. This indeed is Yoga, for only the duty performed without motives is the means of Knowledge.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.51

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कर्मजं बुद्धि-युक्ताः हि फलं त्यक्त्वा मनीषिणः ।
जन्म-बंध-विनिर्मुक्ताः पदं गच्छन्ति अनामयम् ॥ २.५१ ॥

ಕರ್ಮಜಂ ಬುದ್ಧಿ-ಯುಕ್ತಾಃ ಹಿ ಫಲಂ ತ್ಯಕ್ತ್ವಾ ಮನೀಷಿಣಃ |
ಜನ್ಮ-ಬಂಧ-ವಿನಿರ್ಮುಕ್ತಾಃ ಪದಂ ಗಚ್ಛಂತಿ ಅನಾಮಯಮ್ || ೨.೫೧ ||

karmajaM buddhi-yuktAH hi phalaM tyaktvA maneeShiNaH |
janma-baMdha-vinirmuktAH padaM gacChaMti anAmayam || 2.51 ||

Those who gain knowledge by renouncing the fruit of Karma, surely they become wise and released from the bonds of birth, and attain to the goal beyond misery

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.52

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यदा तॆ मॊहकलिलं बुद्धिः व्यतितरिष्यति ।
तदा गन्तासि निर्वॆदं श्रॊतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ॥ २.५२ ॥

ಯದಾ ತೇ ಮೋಹಕಲಿಲಂ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ವ್ಯತಿತರಿಷ್ಯತಿ |
ತದಾ ಗಂತಾಸಿ ನಿರ್ವೇದಂ ಶ್ರೋತವ್ಯಸ್ಯ ಶ್ರುತಸ್ಯ ಚ || ೨.೫೨ ||

yadA tE mOhakalilaM buddhiH vyatitariShyati |
tadA gaMtAsi nirvEdaM shrOtavyasya shrutasya cha || 2.52 ||

When your mind shall get over the evil of misapprehension, then you shall attain to the full benefit of what has been heard and should be heard.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.53

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श्रुति विप्रतिपन्ना तॆ यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला ।
समाधौ अचला बुद्धिः तदा यॊगं अवाप्स्यसि ॥ २.५३ ॥

ಶ್ರುತಿ ವಿಪ್ರತಿಪನ್ನಾ ತೇ ಯದಾ ಸ್ಥಾಸ್ಯತಿ ನಿಶ್ಚಲಾ |
ಸಮಾಧೌ ಅಚಲಾ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ತದಾ ಯೋಗಂ ಅವಾಪ್ಸ್ಯಸಿ || ೨.೫೩ ||

shruti vipratipannA tE yadA sthAsyati nishchalA |
samAdhau achalA buddhiH tadA yOgaM avApsyasi || 2.53 ||

The intellect that was confused by contradictory arguments in the Vedas becomes perfectly stabilized by the proper interpretation of the Vedas. Then with intense meditation on the bliss of the supreme one shall attain the yoga

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.54

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अर्जुन उवाच :-
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधि स्थस्य कॆशव ।
स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषॆत किं आसीत व्रजॆत किम् ॥ २.५४ ॥

ಅರ್ಜುನ ಉವಾಚ :-
ಸ್ಥಿತಪ್ರಜ್ಞಸ್ಯ ಕಾ ಭಾಷಾ ಸಮಾಧಿ ಸ್ಥಸ್ಯ ಕೇಶವ |
ಸ್ಥಿತಧೀಃ ಕಿಂ ಪ್ರಭಾಷೇತ ಕಿಂ ಆಸೀತ ವ್ರಜೇತ ಕಿಮ್ || ೨.೫೪ ||

arjuna uvAcha :-
sthitapraj~jasya kA bhAShA samAdhi sthasya kEshava |
sthitadheeH kiM prabhAShEta kiM Aseeta vrajEta kim || 2.54 ||

Arjuna says:
O Keshava, what is the description of him whose wisdom is mature and who is in meditation? He whose perception has become steadfast, what should he talk about, what should he sit at, where should he go to?

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.55

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श्री भगवान् उवाच :
प्रजहाति यदा कामान् सर्वान् पार्थ मनॊगतान् ।
आत्मनि एव आत्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञः तदा उच्यतॆ ॥ २.५५ ॥

ಶ್ರೀ ಭಗವಾನ್ ಉವಾಚ :
ಪ್ರಜಹಾತಿ ಯದಾ ಕಾಮಾನ್ ಸರ್ವಾನ್ ಪಾರ್ಥ ಮನೋಗತಾನ್ |
ಆತ್ಮನಿ ಏವ ಆತ್ಮನಾ ತುಷ್ಟಃ ಸ್ಥಿತಪ್ರಜ್ಞಃ ತದಾ ಉಚ್ಯತೇ || ೨.೫೫ ||

shree bhagavAn uvAcha :
prajahAti yadA kAmAn sarvAn pArtha manOgatAn |
Atmani Eva AtmanA tuShTaH sthitapraj~jaH tadA uchyatE || 2.55 ||

Sri Krishna said: O Partha, when a man eschews all the desires in the heart, and being confirmed in the Lord, finds satisfaction in the Lord, then he is called as one of steadfast wisdom.

All desires in the heart means, all the prohibited desires that find their place in the heart. They should be expelled. However, all activities of the mind and heart consistent with the knowledge of God may forever continue to be there.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.56

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दुःखॆषु अनुद्विग्न मनाः सुखॆषु विगत स्पृहः ।
वीत राग भय क्रॊधः स्थित धीः मुनिः उच्यतॆ ॥ २.५६ ॥

ದುಃಖೇಷು ಅನುದ್ವಿಗ್ನ ಮನಾಃ ಸುಖೇಷು ವಿಗತ ಸ್ಪೃಹಃ |
ವೀತ ರಾಗ ಭಯ ಕ್ರೋಧಃ ಸ್ಥಿತ ಧೀಃ ಮುನಿಃ ಉಚ್ಯತೇ || ೨.೫೬ ||

duHkhEShu anudvigna manAH sukhEShu vigata spRuhaH |
veeta rAga bhaya krOdhaH sthita dheeH muniH uchyatE || 2.56 ||

He whose mind is un-agitated amid pains, who is destitute of longing for pleasures, of passion, fear and anger, he is called a sage of steadfast wisdom

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.57

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यः सर्वत्र अनभिस्नॆहः तत् तत् प्राप्य शुभ अशुभम् ।
न अभिनन्दति न द्वॆष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ २.५७ ॥

ಯಃ ಸರ್ವತ್ರ ಅನಭಿಸ್ನೇಹಃ ತತ್ ತತ್ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯ ಶುಭ ಅಶುಭಮ್ |
ನ ಅಭಿನಂದತಿ ನ ದ್ವೇಷ್ಟಿ ತಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತಾ || ೨.೫೭ ||

yaH sarvatra anabhisnEhaH tat tat prApya shubha ashubham |
na abhinaMdati na dvEShTi tasya praj~jA pratiShThitA || 2.57 ||

He who is on every side without strong attachments, neither rejoices at, nor abhors whatever may happen, auspicious or inauspicious, (good or bad), of such a person, wisdom is steadfast.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.58

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यदा संहरतॆ च अयं कूर्मः अङ्गानि इव सर्वशः ।
इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रिय अर्थॆभ्यः तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ २.५८ ॥

ಯದಾ ಸಂಹರತೇ ಚ ಅಯಂ ಕೂರ್ಮಃ ಅಂಗಾನಿ ಇವ ಸರ್ವಶಃ |
ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯ ಅರ್ಥೇಭ್ಯಃ ತಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತಾ || ೨.೫೮ ||

yadA saMharatE cha ayaM kUrmaH aMgAni iva sarvashaH |
iMdriyANi iMdriya arthEbhyaH tasya praj~jA pratiShThitA || 2.58 ||

Further, if one can withdraw all his senses from the objects without effort, just like how a tortoise does with its limbs, his wisdom is securely established

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.59

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विषया विनिवर्तन्तॆ निराहारस्य दॆहिनः ।
रसवर्जं रसः अपि अस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्ततॆ ॥ २.५९ ॥

ವಿಷಯಾ ವಿನಿವರ್ತಂತೇ ನಿರಾಹಾರಸ್ಯ ದೇಹಿನಃ |
ರಸವರ್ಜಂ ರಸಃ ಅಪಿ ಅಸ್ಯ ಪರಂ ದೃಷ್ಟ್ವಾ ನಿವರ್ತತೇ || ೨.೫೯ ||

viShayA vinivartaMtE nirAhArasya dEhinaH |
rasavarjaM rasaH api asya paraM dRuShTvA nivartatE || 2.59 ||

The objects of sense, not the longing for them, turn away from the person who abstains from food; even that longing in him clears off having seen the Supreme

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.60

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यततॊ हि अपि कौन्तॆय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।
इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ॥ २.६० ॥

ಯತತೋ ಹಿ ಅಪಿ ಕೌಂತೇಯ ಪುರುಷಸ್ಯ ವಿಪಶ್ಚಿತಃ |
ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಪ್ರಮಾಥೀನಿ ಹರಂತಿ ಪ್ರಸಭಂ ಮನಃ || ೨.೬೦ ||

yatatO hi api kauMtEya puruShasya vipashchitaH |
iMdriyANi pramAtheeni haraMti prasabhaM manaH || 2.60 ||

O Kunti’s son, though he may exert, be he the learned, the turbulent senses of the person indeed carry his mind away

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.61

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तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्परः ।
वशॆ हि यस्य इन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ २.६१ ॥

ತಾನಿ ಸರ್ವಾಣಿ ಸಂಯಮ್ಯ ಯುಕ್ತ ಆಸೀತ ಮತ್ಪರಃ |
ವಶೇ ಹಿ ಯಸ್ಯ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ತಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತಾ || ೨.೬೧ ||

tAni sarvANi saMyamya yukta Aseeta matparaH |
vashE hi yasya iMdriyANi tasya praj~jA pratiShThitA || 2.61 ||

Having restrained them all, he should sit in contemplation that I am the Supreme Lord; wisdom becomes firmly established of him who has surely the senses under his control.

Here I means Lord Krishna (the speaker). The contemplation must proceed with a perfect understanding that the glorious Lord is the most exalted of all things.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.62 & 2.63

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ध्यायतः विषयान् पुंसः सङ्गः तॆषु उपजायतॆ ।
सङ्गात् सञ्जायतॆ कामः कामात् क्रॊधः अभिजायतॆ ॥ २.६२ ॥

क्रॊधात् भवति सम्मॊहः सम्मॊहात् स्मृतिविभ्रमः ।
स्मृतिभ्रंशात् बुद्धिनाशः बुद्धिनाशात् प्रणश्यति ॥ २.६३ ॥

ಧ್ಯಾಯತಃ ವಿಷಯಾನ್ ಪುಂಸಃ ಸಂಗಃ ತೇಷು ಉಪಜಾಯತೇ |
ಸಂಗಾತ್ ಸಂಜಾಯತೇ ಕಾಮಃ ಕಾಮಾತ್ ಕ್ರೋಧಃ ಅಭಿಜಾಯತೇ || ೨.೬೨ ||

ಕ್ರೋಧಾತ್ ಭವತಿ ಸಮ್ಮೋಹಃ ಸಮ್ಮೋಹಾತ್ ಸ್ಮೃತಿವಿಭ್ರಮಃ |
ಸ್ಮೃತಿಭ್ರಂಶಾತ್ ಬುದ್ಧಿನಾಶಃ ಬುದ್ಧಿನಾಶಾತ್ ಪ್ರಣಶ್ಯತಿ || ೨.೬೩ ||

dhyAyataH viShayAn puMsaH saMgaH tEShu upajAyatE |
saMgAt saMjAyatE kAmaH kAmAt krOdhaH abhijAyatE || 2.62 ||

krOdhAt bhavati sammOhaH sammOhAt smRutivibhramaH |
smRutibhraMshAt buddhinAshaH buddhinAshAt praNashyati || 2.63 ||

In him who ponders on the objects of senses, an attachment to them is formed; from the attachment arises desire; from desire arises anger.

From anger results wrong wish; from wrong wish, forgetfulness; from forgetfulness, loss of judgment; from loss of judgment he perishes.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.64

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ರಾಗದ್ವೇಷ ವಿಮುಕ್ತೈಃ ತು ವಿಷಯಾನ್ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯೈಃ ಚರನ್ |
ಆತ್ಮವಶೈಃ ವಿಧೇಯ ಆತ್ಮಾ ಪ್ರಸಾದಂ ಅಧಿಗಚ್ಛತಿ || ೨.೬೪ ||

रागद्वॆष विमुक्तैः तु विषयान् इंद्रियैः चरन् ।
आत्मवशैः विधॆय आत्मा प्रसादं अधिगच्छति ॥ २.६४ ॥

rAgadvESha vimuktaiH tu viShayAn iMdriyaiH charan |
AtmavashaiH vidhEya AtmA prasAdaM adhigacChati || 2.64 ||

But he who with the senses free of Like and Dislike and obedient to self (him) experiences their objects, finds an obedient mind and attains serenity of mind.

Like and Dislikes not prompting the senses, the mind becomes manageable. When the mind is at the disposal of the self, it is evident, the senses also become obedient to the self. To say that these are under his control means that they cannot throw him into agitation

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.65

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प्रसादॆ सर्वदुःखानां हानिः अस्य उपजायतॆ ।
प्रसन्नचॆतसः हि अशु बुद्धिः परि-अवतिष्ठतॆ ॥ २.६५ ॥

ಪ್ರಸಾದೇ ಸರ್ವದುಃಖಾನಾಂ ಹಾನಿಃ ಅಸ್ಯ ಉಪಜಾಯತೇ |
ಪ್ರಸನ್ನಚೇತಸಃ ಹಿ ಅಶು ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಪರಿ-ಅವತಿಷ್ಠತೇ || ೨.೬೫ ||

prasAdE sarvaduHkhAnAM hAniH asya upajAyatE |
prasannachEtasaH hi ashu buddhiH pari-avatiShThatE || 2.65 ||

Serenity rising, the extinction of all his miseries comes about; for, the perception of him who is of a serene mind soon becomes steadied.

Here the order of facts is:
(1) Serenity of mind
(2) Clear and uninterrupted perception of the Brahman
(3) Direct realization of the nature and glory of the Lord
(4) Extinction of all miseries

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.66

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न अस्ति बुद्धिः अयुक्तस्य न च अयुक्तस्य भावना ।
न च अभावयतः शान्तिः अशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥ २.६६ ॥

ನ ಅಸ್ತಿ ಬುದ್ಧಿಃ ಅಯುಕ್ತಸ್ಯ ನ ಚ ಅಯುಕ್ತಸ್ಯ ಭಾವನಾ |
ನ ಚ ಅಭಾವಯತಃ ಶಾಂತಿಃ ಅಶಾಂತಸ್ಯ ಕುತಃ ಸುಖಮ್ || ೨.೬೬ ||

na asti buddhiH ayuktasya na cha ayuktasya bhAvanA |
na cha abhAvayataH shAMtiH ashAMtasya kutaH sukham || 2.66 ||

Contemplation is not possible for him who does not restrain the mind; for him who does not contemplate, direct perception does not arise; for him who has not gained the direct perception, release is impossible; without release, whence is happiness?

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.67

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इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यत् मनः अनुविधीयतॆ ।
तत् अस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुः नावं इव अम्भसि ॥ २.६७ ॥

ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಾಂ ಹಿ ಚರತಾಂ ಯತ್ ಮನಃ ಅನುವಿಧೀಯತೇ |
ತತ್ ಅಸ್ಯ ಹರತಿ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾಂ ವಾಯುಃ ನಾವಂ ಇವ ಅಂಭಸಿ || ೨.೬೭ ||

iMdriyANAM hi charatAM yat manaH anuvidheeyatE |
tat asya harati praj~jAM vAyuH nAvaM iva aMbhasi || 2.67 ||

That the mind is made to follow the wandering senses sends his understanding adrift, even as the wind does the vessel upon the waters

The mind is naturally constituted to follow the lead of the senses. It is the constitution that allows the true conclusions of the shastras to slip easily from his mind; it even prevents the rising of such conclusive knowledge; and the little that may find place in it cannot be useful in promoting meditation and thereby obtaining direct perception, in the absence of control

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.68

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तस्मात् यस्य महाबाहॊ निगृहीतानि सर्वशः ।
इन्द्रियाणि इन्द्रियार्थॆभ्यः तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥ २.६८ ॥

ತಸ್ಮಾತ್ ಯಸ್ಯ ಮಹಾಬಾಹೋ ನಿಗೃಹೀತಾನಿ ಸರ್ವಶಃ |
ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾಣಿ ಇಂದ್ರಿಯಾರ್ಥೇಭ್ಯಃ ತಸ್ಯ ಪ್ರಜ್ಞಾ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಿತಾ || ೨.೬೮ ||

tasmAt yasya mahAbAhO nigRuheetAni sarvashaH |
iMdriyANi iMdriyaarthEbhyaH tasya praj~jA pratiShThitA || 2.68 ||

Therefore, O mighty armed warrior, of whom the senses are all withdrawn from their objects, of him the wisdom becomes steadfast

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.69

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या निशा सर्व भूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी ।
यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतः मुनॆः ॥ २.६९ ॥

ಯಾ ನಿಶಾ ಸರ್ವ ಭೂತಾನಾಂ ತಸ್ಯಾಂ ಜಾಗರ್ತಿ ಸಂಯಮೀ |
ಯಸ್ಯಾಂ ಜಾಗ್ರತಿ ಭೂತಾನಿ ಸಾ ನಿಶಾ ಪಶ್ಯತಃ ಮುನೇಃ || ೨.೬೯ ||

yA nishA sarva bhUtAnAM tasyAM jAgarti saMyamee |
yasyAM jAgrati bhUtAni sA nishA pashyataH munEH || 2.69 ||

In respect of that which is the night to all beings, the man of self-restraint keeps awake; in respect of which the beings are awake, that is the night of the contemplating sage who sees the Lord.

That which is unperceived of all other beings, i.e., the Lord’s glory, which beings do not see at all, as if in deep sleep; the sage is always seeing it directly and never loses sight of it.

But in respect of the objects of senses, the beings are always devoted to them; whereas a sage is so much deep in meditation and occupied with the Blissful sight of the glorious Lord that he does not think of them at all.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.70

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आपूर्यमाणं अचल प्रतिष्ठं समुद्रं आपः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।
तद्वत् कामाः यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वॆ सः शान्तिं आप्नॊति न काम कामी ॥ २.७० ॥

ಆಪೂರ್ಯಮಾಣಂ ಅಚಲ ಪ್ರತಿಷ್ಠಂ ಸಮುದ್ರಂ ಆಪಃ ಪ್ರವಿಶಂತಿ ಯದ್ವತ್ |
ತದ್ವತ್ ಕಾಮಾಃ ಯಂ ಪ್ರವಿಶಂತಿ ಸರ್ವೇ ಸಃ ಶಾಂತಿಂ ಆಪ್ನೋತಿ ನ ಕಾಮ ಕಾಮೀ || ೨.೭೦ ||

ApUryamANaM achala pratiShThaM samudraM ApaH pravishaMti yadvat |
tadvat kAmAH yaM pravishaMti sarvE saH shAMtiM ApnOti na kAma kAmee || 2.70 ||

Though various rivers carry their waters to it, the ocean ever remains the same without showing any increase; nor does it show any decrease when rivers cease to flow in; nor does the ocean seem concerned with the supply.

Likewise, no change comes upon the wise man who seems to enjoy the objects of senses, but he is neither delighted with them, nor depressed for want of them. He surely attains everlasting bliss in the Heaven

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.71

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विहाय कामान् यः सर्वान् पुमान् चरति निःस्पृहः ।
निर्ममः निरहङ्कारः सः शान्तिं अधिगच्छति ॥ २.७१ ॥

ವಿಹಾಯ ಕಾಮಾನ್ ಯಃ ಸರ್ವಾನ್ ಪುಮಾನ್ ಚರತಿ ನಿಃಸ್ಪೃಹಃ |
ನಿರ್ಮಮಃ ನಿರಹಂಕಾರಃ ಸಃ ಶಾಂತಿಂ ಅಧಿಗಚ್ಛತಿ || ೨.೭೧ ||

vihAya kAmAn yaH sarvAn pumAn charati niHspRuhaH |
nirmamaH nirahaMkAraH saH shAMtiM adhigacChati || 2.71 ||

He who, loosed from prohibited wishes, from the fancy of being the absolute master and the absolute agent, experiences all the objects of senses without any attachment, he is the man who attains to perfect bliss.

Bhagavadgeeta Verse 2.72

Wednesday, November 10th, 2010 - 8 Comments

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ न एनं प्राप्य विमुह्यति ।
स्थित्वा अवस्यां अन्त कालॆ अपि ब्रह्म निर्वाणं ऋच्छति ॥ २.७२ ॥

ಏಷಾ ಬ್ರಾಹ್ಮೀ ಸ್ಥಿತಿಃ ಪಾರ್ಥ ನ ಏನಂ ಪ್ರಾಪ್ಯ ವಿಮುಹ್ಯತಿ |
ಸ್ಥಿತ್ವಾ ಅವಸ್ಯಾಂ ಅಂತ ಕಾಲೇ ಅಪಿ ಬ್ರಹ್ಮ ನಿರ್ವಾಣಂ ಋಚ್ಛತಿ || ೨.೭೨ ||

EShA brAhmee sthitiH pArtha na EnaM prApya vimuhyati |
sthitvA avasyAM aMta kAlE api brahma nirvANaM RucChati || 2.72 ||

O Partha, this is the state in relation to the Brahman; having attained to this, he is not bewildered. Having continued in this state to the very last moment, he goes to Brahman that has no perishable body.

In case there is no prarabdha karma, he remembers the Lord at the last moment of departing from the body in which he has received the Lord’s grace, and goes to Heaven. Prarabdha not being exhausted, he will fall upon other births yet to be passed through and when it is completely exhausted, he attains to Heaven.

The END of “sAnkhya yOga”, the Second Chapter of Sri Bhagavad Geeta

|| shree bhArateeramaNa mukhyaprANAntargata shree kRuShNArpaNamastu ||